September 13, 2018

Eugenics and Dysgenics Pt. 2b-2

Mysteries Of The Second Thirty Years War

by

R.E. Prindle

 

Continued from Pt. 2b-1

According to Lion Feuchtwanger Jud Suss’ biographer cum novelist, Suss, who was advisor to Duke Karl Alexander of the German Duchy of Wurttemberg, next to Bavarian Germany flourished in the 1730s and 40s. In his story Feuchtwanger details how Suss swindled and corrupted Duke Karl, bedded his wife and turned her against him, raised money by taxing such necessities as the right to use public roads thereby virtually bankrupting the whole populace much as Netanyahu’s Jewish tax farmers in Spain and generally disrupting the dukedom. In other words, Suss supplanted the Duke. This was done through chutzpah and effrontery. A regular textbook for the Jews and one which seems to have been followed.

The Rothschilds coming along in the footsteps of Suss through chutzpah and luck perfected the system and essentially named the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. While the Europeans were inventing the scientific modern world the Jews were fleecing the Europeans. Thus, out of the disappointments of the nineteenth century that weakened their religious mission and the European rise of Science in the nineteenth century the Jews lost their belief in the supernatural becoming for all intents and purposes the first atheist nation.

The nineteenth century found them floundering around trying to find the way. Numerous religious avenues were explored fracturing the Jews into various religious sects much like Protestantism. Suss’ directive to follow the money led them to seek control of European currency and later in the century US currency which they successfully did. The Euroamerican banking systems were effectively in their near absolute control by 1913.

The Talmud not being a particularly religious work, the Bible, Old Testament, was very secondary to the Talmud and not very assiduously read. Judaism then was embedded in the Talmud. This is what Barbara Spectre of Paideia refers to as ‘Jewish knowledge’ which she places on an equal plane with European knowledge, that is, Science. That is one particularly hard sell.

Thus, in the nineteenth century Judaism was entirely eclipsed by European Science. The old debates between Judaism and Christianity were kaput, irrelevant. Unable to come up with something that could equal or surpass Science the only recourse the Jews had was to inject Talmudist magic into European Science, that is, corrupt it. This is Spectre’s goal. By the turn of the twentieth century they had found the formula.

The change of centuries was a very important period for the Jews. On the religious front the stage was being set to reunite them into one ideology. That ideology was to become Zionism. And behind this whole schemata was the rise of a new arena and power. The United States of America. While the rise of the US happened very, very fast from a group of wild, untutored English colonies whose first president was inaugurated in 1793, that is, the beginning of the nineteenth century, and whose domain at the time barely extended beyond the first range of mountains some hundreds of miles even from the Mississippi and yet a mere hundred years later extended from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific Ocean and through the choice latitudes of the continent. Further it was a country of unexampled prosperity with no settled social mores, ripe for the picking.

It was as though the heavens had opened up and fulfilled Jewish hopes and desires. As the nineteenth century had begun Napoleon had conquered all Europe save Russia with which he had an accommodation. Napoleon, in an attempt in which he would later would be joined by Henry Ford and many others trying to find a solution to the Jewish problem, emancipated the European Jews. As their complaint was that they were discriminated against, and with good reason, Napoleon attempted to remove the cause of that discrimination. In his fatuousness, he misunderstood the Jewish attitude. He thought that since the gates were open to join the main body, European civilization, that the Jews would drop their nationalism, being supposedly a religion, and rush into a melding with the European populations. Little did he realize that the Jews wished to subordinate the European population not to be absorbed into it.

Nevertheless, the cat was out of the bag and couldn’t be put back in. The Jews were then, if not full citizens, still citizens of their respective host countries with the rights pertaining thereto.

Following Jud Suss and his currency ideas were the Rothschilds. Nathan, the son who went to England, was the greatest success. Originally he went to England to enter the textile trade in Manchester in which he was a failure. Not competent in commerce he went into the banking business in which the currency controlled commerce and was a roaring success. He went into banking at the propitious moment if not originating at least perfecting the role of exploiting the entire European population by loaning to governments and managing their currencies. Thus the Rothschilds perfected the Jud Suss idea becoming more important and richer than any European.

The US was a fertile field in which the Jews finally succeeded in taking over the US currency in 1913 with the establishment of the Federal Reserve. The Federal reserve was established as a private corporation of which the owners were nine international Jewish banking firms joined by the Rockefeller interests as the tenth to make a minyan. Truly the Fed was a money machine as the Jews and Rockefellers collected annual interest on every US dollar they issued. Plus, the Fed was an independent entity not being under the control of either the President or Congress. It was responsible to no one.

Now, all this occurred just as Science was creating the greatest technological revolution the world would ever see. Technology is the practical arm of Science. Science for instance discovers and develops the understanding of electricity while technology exploits electricity in the form of dynamos, light bulbs and what have you. Fabulous fortunes were thus made. But, that’s not the best part. The resultant businesses were large affairs that couldn’t be financed by an individual thus stock shares were invented to raise money. Very good, now to make the shares liquid a stock market was required. Et voila! Another money machine to be exploited.

So, shortly after the turn of the twentieth century the stage was set for the takeover of the world. All the money in the world was in control of a few hands. The Money Trust.

Lacking any supernatural consciousness, God had effectively been expelled from Jewish concerns, the Jews only claim was the national ego and its desire for world dominion. While the trust in the supernatural was expelled Science was still a threat to Jewish dominance. A way had to be found to convert Science, i.e. European Knowledge, to Jewish Knowledge per Barbara Spectre and then eliminate European Knowledge leaving only Jewish Knowledge with a slight scientific infusion.

Once again, the Jewish plan first conceived by Joseph Oppenheimer and brought to perfection by the Rothschilds was based on a Jewish-Christian confrontation in which the Jews as the elder branch thought they had the upper hand. They were blind sided by the rise of Science that changed the paradigm and gave Europeans absolute supremacy. Bear in mind that Science moved from West to East slowly so that even by 1900 Poland, Russia and the whole of Eastern Europe was barely affected. While Western Jews were splintered into sects the East was still Rabbinic and Orthodox including the Hasidim. All three divisions were medieval in outlook. Hence Zionism took root there quickly and was then exported to the US in the mass migration of 1900-14.

Now, the Jews’ only choice was to submit to Science and inject it with magical elements. Freud said that the religious consciousness took three major blows to its confidence, the heliocentric astronomy, Darwinian evolution, and, modestly, his own psycho-analytic psychology. The evolutionary theory was attacked by Henri Bergson who injected it with creation magic that successfully brought evolution within the scope of religious or Talmudic discussion

Franz Boas did the same with Anthropology even more successfully, removing almost all scientific inquiry turning the subject from an unpalatable scientific discussion into a form of religious humanism. Astronomy was tackled by a nincompoop named Albert Einstein who created astronomical phenomena out of whole cloth with the fabric of time and space in fact.

The main hammer however was the putative psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud’s assault was on the mores of the Europeans and Americans, especially sexual mores, in which he was eminently successful. He was actually able to remold the sexual mores of Europeans and, of course, their offshoot in the United States of America.

While, at least until fairly recently, Freud was able to capture the whole psychological discipline and the become the putative ‘father’ of psychology, he was nothing of the sort. Psychology was a purely European science until he captured it. This was done by the Jewish propaganda machine.

After 1897 and the First Zionist Congress the spirit of the Jewish people passed from their god into the souls of Jews. They now learned or thought they had that their redemption would not come from the divine but the people, that is themselves. There was no more waiting for the Messiah; they were their own messiah.

The decried Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion were a result of the 1897 Zionist conference in Vienna. Although as yet the exact provenance of the Protocols can’t be determined; certain well founded conjectures can be made. I, myself, would look to the lodge of the Order of B’nai B’rith of Vienna. If anybody had been plotting this, it was plotted there. Also, since 1895 Sigmund Freud had been a prominent member.

Theodore Herzl who was the originator of Zionism was a Viennese. Vienna at this time had replaced Frankfort-on-the-Main as the guiding center of European Judaism. I have not seen it reported that Herzl was a member of the International Order of B’nai B’rith, but he must certainly have been acquainted with and associated with various members. He was a prominent journalist. The Viennese chapter was a revolutionary chapter. In 1895 a significant figure joined the chapter and that significant figure was Sigmund Freud. Freud was imbued with a deep hatred of Europe and its people and things European. He was bloody minded.

As a devout Jew he, not unlike his twenty-first century successor, Barbara Spectre, worked to see Jewish mores and morality replace those of Europe and Europeans. He longed for the physical destruction of Europe and Europeans. In 1895 his career as a psychologist was in its infancy. Yet, he was a protégé of Joseph Breuer and he had studied for a brief but important time with the great Parisian Dr. Jean-Martin Charcot and had rubbed shoulders with Charcot’s acolyte, the near great Pierre Janet, from whom he appropriated many of his ideas. He had also studied with the great French hypnotist Auguste Liebeault and his Jewish acolyte Hippolyte Bernstein. I might also mention Freud appropriated whole passages from Gustave Lebon’s The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind which he uncharacteristically credited. Thus he was well founded in contemporary psychological and hypnotic ideas. And it should not be forgotten that he was a cocaine addict although this life long habit is suppressed.

One can only speculate that he, being especially enthusiastic about the drug, turned on the members of B’nai B’rith along with his friends and acquaintances. Thus, I suspect, if Zionism originated with Herzl in association with B’nai B’rith it was done in a cocaine fog.   I also suspect, might even maintain, that the Protocols were composed in the lodge of B’nai B’rith, hence definitely are of Jewish provenance. At any rate Freud developed his ideas, possibly discussing and refining them at the weekly meetings in the Lodge that he attended religiously until the Nazis marched into Vienna causing him to remove. Thus one might say Freud functioned as a secular Messiah of the Jews replacing Sabbatai Zevi while planning the destruction of Europe and Europeans in the spirit of 1666.

This hatred would find expression in the Second Thirty Years’ War of 1914-45 during which the devastation was worse than that of the First Thirty Years’ War. While the First was between Catholics and Protestants, the Second was between Jews and Aryans.

You may say such a thing was impossible but the template for the method was recorded in Greek Mythology as the invasion of the Semite Cadmus into Aryan Greek Boeotia, just North of Athens.

According to the story Cadmus sowed discord between the native Boeotians who then engaged in a civil war destroying each other as Cadmus ‘ immigrants didn’t have the strength or numbers to take them on. Then, when the Boeotians had exhausted themselves Cadmus negotiated a peace between while stablishing himself (that is his people) as supreme. This was followed by the two Theban wars and the Trojan War reclaiming Europe for Europeans.

Of course this is expressed in mythological poetic language in the Greek myths. As the Jews in Europe were in the same situation as Cadmus in Boeotia they employed the same method, as they are now in the US and Europe. In the first half of the war they were successful in gaining supremacy in Russia and maintaining supremacy on the continent until the rise of Hitler in Germany who then destroyed their success in Germany but necessitating the second half of the war in which Jewish hopes were temporarily shattered by the attempted genocide. Unlike the Peace Conference of WWI, WWII, the Thirty years’ War ended with the US and Europe vs. the Soviet Union as two armed camps.

Thus, when WWI ended the Jews via Communism were supreme across Europe although not yet in undisguised dominance. Their success in WWI was achieved through their manipulation of the US which was the weight that tipped the balance. Thus, the Kaiser, the Czar and the Austrian Emperor were eliminated as entities. Democracy as a political tool then opened the field to Jewish pre-eminence.

The opposition of Hitler and the NSDAP necessitated another war. The success in WWII would depend on US involvement as had WWI. WWI had altered circumstances. Apparently unbeknownst to Europeans there were now two superpowers of which a Europe divided into smaller powers was, as it were, superannuated. The Soviet Union and the USA were calling all the shots. The European situation was truly pathetic.

 

Continued in Part 2b-3

 

Part Three

The European Holocaust

by

R.E. Prindle

The year 1900 may be said to have ushered in the New World Order.  Science and technology had broken through the knowledge ceiling to a new level.  It would be tedious to list all the breakthroughs that occurred almost at once, suffice it to say that movies, the internal combustion engine and airplanes shocked the senses, overturning many established ‘facts.’  Man could fly, could go over a mile a minute and could record a living image of historical figures.  With X-rays the human body became transparent.

Nineteen hundred was only a hint of the future.  Developments over the next fifty to a hundred years would be so rapid and astonishing that few if any minds could keep up and grasp the full significance of the changes.  The present and future seemed so unlimited while the average mind was inversely limited.

Unimaginable riches were about to be in the grasp of millions.  Within a century multi-millionaires would be as common as stones while billionaires would be in abundance.  The hundred million dollar fortunes that so terrified the minds of the nineteenth century are today more common than most believe.

Nor are these inherited fortunes, but money earned by the holders on their own merit.  Many minds collapsed under the strains of being able to gratify material desires while psychological hopes remained unrealized and unrealizable.

Intellectually the discovery of the past opened many minds.  While knowledge has moved ahead rapidly and loosened the impact of these early intellectual adventurers the future nevertheless was built on the backs of men like the anthropologist James G. Frazer and his amazing work The Golden Bough.  Frazer was only one of hundreds.

Nowhere was the future plotted more closely than in the field of Psychology.  Who controls the mind controls society.  The twentieth century would see the development of mind control.  Aldous Huxley laid out the model in his 1932 novel Brave New World.  It was a brave new world but the sneaky old world was dragging behind like a collective unconscious, to play on an idea of the psychologist C.G. Jung.

Jung at one time teamed up with Sigmund Freud in the development of psycho-analysis.  As noted in Part Two Freud was instrumental in the implementation of the Jewish Dream to be, in the words of a Jewish spokesperson Samuel Untermyer, the aristocrats of the world.

If the Jews are a separate people, and they do claim to be that, then the Jews as a people must have to be engaged in some kind of activity to realize their dream.  Psychologically that dream is a post hypnotic suggestion and as is well known post-hypnotic suggestions will be acted upon.  While the Protocols of Zion are not necessary to prove anything the text does accurately plot out Jewish intentions.

A modern Jewish writer, the US rabbi Abba Hillel Silver expressed those plans in his book A History Of Messianic Speculation In Israel.  The last big effort to overthrow Europeans occurred in 1666.  The 666 is the number of the Beast, thus maintaining the Satanic connection to Freud.  At that time a messianic candidate named Sabbatai Zevi was active in the Ottoman empire of present day Turkey.  He was called before the Sultan at which time the Jews expected him to declare the Millennium.  Don’t take this lightly, Jews sold all their possessions for a song for a grand fling as money would not be needed in the Millennium.  Across Europe Jews prepared to begin the slaughter of Europeans with Zevi’s pronouncement.  Disappointingly Zevi when confronted by the power of the Sultan opted for conversion to Moslemism rather than announcing the Millennium.

This was a cruel disappointment to the Jews sending them off the rails for a couple hundred years, perhaps even to the present.  The Learned Elders then determined to never rely on an individual messiah again.  Apparently they realized that the Messiah would never appear, something like waiting for the Godeau of Balzac.

According to Silver then, the only way to realize the Redemption was for the whole people to work for the revolution that would realize the Millennium.  As Silver says, the years 1913-28 were designated as the revolutionary period that would usher in the Millennium.  Thus one must believe that as the great years neared the Jewish people became frenzied as they were in 1666 immersed in hopes of the success of the European Holocaust that would bring them into their own.

It nearly succeeded in 1903-05 but a little extra effort was needed to put it over the top in 1917.  The extermination of the European peoples was part and parcel of the revolution.  The Jews certainly must have realized that they would have failed in the slaughter of the Europeans in 1666 so more indirect methods would be required in this latest attempt.  Perhaps they could get the Europeans to shoot each other while in the resulting desolation perhaps enough could be made to starve to death making finishing them off easier.

Yes, I know that sounds farfetched, doesn’t it?  But, look at how it all came down.

-2-

It would be absurd to say that the Jews were not politically involved in European and American affairs, directing things to their benefit, but so they apparently would have us believe.  They said that Henry Ford was absurd, that he ‘invented’ an international Jewish conspiracy and ought to be punished not only for saying but thinking it.  He was a hateful anti-Semite, so they said.

Let’s look at the situation.  As the century turned the Jews were a semi-autonomous people from Russia to North America; that is around the world actually as Russia and North America are narrowly separated by the Bering Straits in the Arctic.

So the Jews in 1900 were influential in Russia, the Baltic States, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the Balkans, Germany, France, England, the whole of Europe as well as having burgeoning populations in the US and Canada.  That’s an international presence.

There were numerous purely Jewish organization in all those States.  The avowed purpose of all these organizations was to look after Jewish interests worldwide.  Wherever an act occurred anywhere in the world that affected Jewish interests, the whole world’s attention was focused on the incident while ‘justice’ was demanded.

Certainly one can say the Jews were ‘breathing together’ which is what the word conspire means and gives the meaning to ‘conspiracy.’

As this is the turn of the twentieth century the great emigration from Europe to North America was reaching full flood.  Fully half of European Jewry would be transferred to the US and Canada from 1870 to 1914.

The great gathering place for the beginning of the Jewish trek across Europe was the city of Brody on the Austro-Hungarian border with Russia.  Brody was 88% Jewish, described by the Jews as a city where wisdom and wealth, Torah understanding, commerce and faith were united.  For forty some years streams of migrating Jews began the trek to the North German ports where they embarked for North America.  Thus just as the immiserization of the US South began in what is described as Reconstruction the Jews set out for the New Promised Land.

The great Jewish money lords of Europe and North America pitched in to organize the flow.  While this was in violation of the regulations governing immigration to the US, as usual, the Jews flaunted all the rules conspiring together.

For nearly fifty years the roads leading Northwest to Germany were clogged with penniless Jews leading toward what they thought was salvation.  Crowds passed by or through Vienna making that city the eye of the storm.  Young Adolf Hitler must have witnessed the phenomenon.

While the Jews were in movement in Europe, in the wake of the US Civil War and the building of the railroads, armies of hobos shattered by the war or unable to adjust to rapidly changing conditions roamed restlessly back and forth, North and South seeking a redemption of their own no less despised than the Jews.

A considerable body of literature of that phenomenon also developed well portrayed in a few of the stories of Jack London and Edgar Rice Burroughs.

As the body of Jews in the US grew, perhaps in anticipation of the coming European Holocaust the Jewish world government was transferred from France to New York City.  The history of revolution in Europe was pointing to a mega attempt in Germany but it finally occurred in Russia then rebounding West after the First European Holocaust of 1914-18.

Thus, with 1913, the first year of the Jewish Revolution’s approach the Jews were scrambling to get into position.  As noted, Teddy Roosevelt gave the Jews as a nation a seat the bargaining table that ended the Russo-Japanese war in 1905.  Using that as a basis for harassing the Russians the Jews demanded a break in US Russian political relations.  Using that strength as a basis for harassing the Russians Jews demanded a break in US-Russian diplomatic relations.  Using the excuse of being American citizens the Jews were entering Russia to manage anti-Russian activities then scooting back across the Russian border.  The Russians saw them as Jews no different than their own thus refusing to honor their US passports.  Using this as an excuse the Jews caused President Taft to break diplomatic relations.

Then with the capture of the presidency in 1913 by Woodrow Wilson the Jews who had backed him flooded into Washington where they began to establish themselves as a semi-autonomous people in the US.  They were well on their way until the Republicans regained the presidency from 1921-1933 ousting them from Washington DC and upsetting their plans temporarily.

-3-

The Propaganda War

Now that I’ve softened up the psychological situation a little we can go into it in a little more detail.  The early decades of the twentieth century laid the groundwork for the manipulation of the citizen’s mind.  Some might call it the mass mind but all great mind manipulation is aimed directly at the individual as a unit of a body.  Advertising is meant to move the individual personally one at a time.  Thus good mind manipulation is aimed directly at you.

As the Jews existed only as a miniscule percentage of the total Euroamerican population with no central base of operations and no military the only method available to them was mind control.  They availed themselves of it, hence the concentration of the media in their hands or under the control of themselves.  The idea being to get the Jewish view across to the exclusion of any other.  Jewish good, Other bad.

This means that the Protocols are an authentic expression of Jewish goals.  The Protocols were obsolete as they were written since the modern media that have displaced the newspaper as a vehicle of dissemination were developing rapidly- that is, the movies, radio, the magazines and color photography, telephones, telegraphy and all related media.  These too fell under the ownership and management of the Jews.  I entertain no denials; the facts are the facts.

At the same time as the rise of Psychology and psycho-analysis, advertising and public relations dependent on psychological ideas and methods also began tremendous propagandistic assaults on the citizen’s mind.  Advertising and public relations are the epitome of propaganda.  The terms are inter-changeable.

Sigmund Freud was a master propagandist, it’s a bit of a stretcher, but psycho-analysis as conceived by Freud is propaganda of the most effective sort.  Freud had a nephew working out of the US who is said to have been one of the founders of public relations by the name of Edward Bernays.  Bernays was related to Freud’s wife.

He and Freud were in relatively close contact; Freud allowed Bernays to publish his writings.  The goal of Judaism as ‘the aristocrats of the world’ as Untermyer claimed is to assume the position of authority which is the place of the aristocrat over the hoi polloi or, in other words, the rest of us.

Not quite as blatant as Untermyer Feud and Bernays expressed their desire in this way:  As people are in the control of their unconscious, which by Freud’s definition is affected by irrational impulses, they are unreliable and subject to error, that is irrational attempts to harm the world’s aristocrats, therefor their minds have to be manipulated by an elite group that knows what is best for them.

While Freud and Bernays don’t define who this group of superior guides is, since Freud and Bernays are chief guides it must be the Jews, aristocratic Jews directing the hoi polloi.

Thus while Freud masks himself as a scientific investigator of the psyche he is actually a propagandist furthering the ends of the Jewish Revolution.  I don’t mean to say that he didn’t introduce some valid psychological concepts, I myself take a Freudian approach, but that he used his knowledge for parochial ends and they were not benign.  Freud was all for the European Holocaust.

Freud was well read in psychological literature.  His chapter on previous research and speculation on the nature of dreams in his Interpretation Of Dreams is exhaustive and believe me, impressive.  Freud took from everyone then trashed their reputations taking credit for their discoveries for himself.  It was criminal the way he shouldered Pierre Janet aside while the attack on C.G. Jung was no less vicious.

As mentioned above the idea of the Unconscious was well established before Freud gave it his peculiar interpretation.  His idea of the Unconscious is just that, his idiosyncratic interpretation.  It is a creation of his imagination, a fiction.

In his configuration the Unconscious is a religious magical or spiritual entity that exists outside the mind and body while controlling it.  The Unconscious displaces the Conscious rational mind in the same way that Lucifer was ejected from heaven by God.  The unconscious becomes Satanic as a repository of evil impulses.  Any attempt to exercise conscious self-control in Freudian terms became Repression and Repression according to Freud’s scheme of things is harmful.  Thus all ignoble impulses are to be indulged less one damages one’s psyche.

This is not too far from Jacob Frank’s notion that before the Jews can become good they must first expel the evil in their hearts by committing all possible crimes until evil is exhausted and good can enter in.  Freud has successfully imposed these mistaken notions on the Western world.  He succeeded in slandering and defaming all other interpretations of the unconscious.

While the unconscious may seem real, in point of fact it merely is a legitimate function of the mind.  Like any other function it can be perverted.  Freud correctly noted that the dream material rehashed events of the day.  What the conscious mind had no time to notice the impressions still entered the mind thus the sleeping mind, the brain still functioning, recalls those impressions trying to make sense of them.  However this sense is distorted by fixations, or actually post-hypnotic suggestions, created by events of the past.  The fixations interpret events according to their faulty understanding.   A fixation may be compared to a computer virus in which an entry for one site is redirected to another.

Thus one has those fantastic dreams that are incomprehensible.  The true purpose of psycho-analysis is to find these fixations or viruses and exorcize them by enunciating them.  Locating the fixations is easy but the victim is terrified by them refusing to enunciate them.  If the analysand can enunciate the fixation it disappears as an influence on his behavior.

If the central fixation is removed the analysand has an integrated personality in which his conscious mind has control.  The brain functions as a coordinated unit rather than being distorted by fixations. This should be the goal of psycho-analysis.  With the conscious and unconscious mind unified into a whole the analysand is probably what Scientologists call a ‘clear.’

Instead of aiming for this goal Freud took the Satanic approach favoring the unconscious over the conscious mind.  Thus Freudian Satanism has triumphed in our time.

The Jews then combined Freudian psychology with Marxism producing such hybrids as the Da Da movement of the war years and subsequently the Critical Theory of the Frankfort School that emerged in the twenties in Germany then coming to the United States in the thirties raising havoc here.  By the early sixties non-Jews in the US had been completely demoralized not knowing who they were.

Using this species of mind control then the Jews released the fire storm of WWI that destroyed the best of the manhood of Europe in the worst holocaust the world had seen to that date.

The principle weapon of the Jews was not cannons but food, or the lack of it, as a weapon of mass destruction- starvation.  The period from 1914 to 1945 would be one of ravenous hunger.  The destruction of Europeans as bad as it was would have been even more phenomenal, much worse than it was, except for one thing- the US.  The US provided a bete noir for the Jews in the person of Herbert Hoover.  Hoover thwarted the famine caused by the war by bringing food to the Europeans.   He would be rewarded for this after 1933 by one of the worst slander campaigns ever directed at a single human being.  It would not be until after the death of Roosevelt in 1945 and the lessening of Jewish influence in Washington that the defamation would let up.

Hoover’s first effort was in Belgium in the opening period of the war.  He single handedly directed the Belgian relief that saved millions of lives.  After the Armistice, Wilson’s great betrayal of the German people, the allies prevented food stuffs from being sent to the Germans in what appears to have been a genocidal attempt to destroy the German people.  Once again Hoover came to the rescue bringing relief to the starving Germans.

The war ravaged Eastern Europe preventing any substantial harvests for the four years so that by 1921 starvation raged from Poland East through Russia.  Millions  died and millions more were dying.  Once again Hoover led the rescue mission earning the undying hatred of the Jews whose genocidal holocaust was to some extent thwarted.

With the Jewish world government out of harm’s way in the US the bodies hit the ground in Europe.  Let the European Holocaust begin.  Now, in 1916 Henry Ford’s testimony is that the American Jewish Committee’s Herman Bernstein and Rosa Schwimmer told him on his Peace Ship the Oscar II that the Jews had promulgated the war and only they could stop it.  Of course Bernstein and Schwimmer denied saying this but Ford affirmed they did.  Ford was denounced as an anti-Semite which is merely a convenient and irrefutable accusation so that between believing the AJC agents and Ford I’m going with Ford not to mention that subsequent facts bear him out.

Among the many organizations devoted to furthering Jewish interests one of the most important, still in existence and active today, was the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee that was organized in 1914 at the outbreak of the war.  The purpose of the Joint, alternatively the JDC, was to aid Eastern European Jews in the aftermath of the war.  The bulk of European Jewry lived in the Pale of Settlement, which was a large strip of land, larger than several US States between Poland and Russia, and this area was ravaged by the contending forces for four years with continuing warfare until 1921.

The JDC then collected money and supplies to go to the aid of the Jews exclusively after the war.  There was a virtual invasion of Russia, The Pale, by American Jewish welfare workers after the war.  As the famine mounted, by 1921 Herbert Hoover, the bete noir of the Jews, organized a massive relief effort while heading the Dept. of Commerce in the Harding Administration.  His relief effort was not appreciated by the Jewish dominated Communist Party of the now Soviet Union.

All was not peace, love and happiness in the nascent Soviet Union.  Remember the Communist Soviet Union supplanted the Czars and Russia.  After the revolution the name Russia was erased from the map by the Jews being replaced by the Soviet Union.  There were very few Russians running the Soviet government.  Stalin himself was a Georgian while the Jews formed a majority of the upper levels while nearly owning the bureaucracy.

As Dostoievsky had prophesied, given the opportunity the Jews would have exterminated the Russians.  This was their opportunity and they set about it with a vengeance.  In Russia abattoirs were set up in which the Russians were pushed in one door, hacked to pieces and the remains shoved out the other door.  It is said that the butchers waded ankle deep through the blood and gore.

While this was going on numerous White, that is Czarist, armies were waging war against the Soviets on several fronts aided by the US, Japan and England.

The immiseration of the Russian people can hardly be imagined.  Hordes of feral orphans were roaming the streets of the cities.

The revolutionary cadres of Soviet operatives flowed back from Russia West into central Europe seriously endangering the German State.  Had the Communists triumphed there can be no doubt that many millions of Germans would have been murdered in a genocidal rage.  Hungary was seized by the Jew Bela Kun and his lieutenant the mad butcher Tibor Szmuelly who then murdered tens of thousands of Hungarians before the Communists were thrown out by the concerted efforts of the Western States and the Hungarians themselves.

In Germany the various Volkist Freikorps, of which Hitler was the leader of one, put down several revolutionary attempts to at least keep Germany out the Judaeo-Communist camp.

The postwar revolutionary battles were not forgotten by the Germans.  The fear of the Communists and Jews was on them.  The war between the Reds and Whites in the East did not end with the Armistice but continued for years.  Thus while the so-called Peace Conference was going on in Paris hostilities still raged throughout the East.

While the Jews claim to be loyal to the States in which they reside there was a national contingent of Jews working solely for Jewish interests at the Peace Conference.  Of course their influence on Wilson, more or less their tool, was enormous.

As noted above the Jews were distributed in every country throughout Europe and North America in each of which they were influential to varying degrees if not commanding.  In this sense then as an international people they had or were on the way to establishing a world government.  The First European Holocaust in which the flower of European manhood went to the grave enhanced Jewish penetration.  This influence or power increased in the twenties and thirties until combined with Communist Soviet Russia a loose Jewish Communist worldwide federation would have come into existence.

The twelve year Republican Interregnum in the US delayed the Jewish triumph until 1933 when having sabotaged the Republicans their tool Franklin Delano Roosevelt was installed.  However their success in Europe in 1933 was spoiled by the election of a Volkist president in Germany, Adolf Hitler of the German National Socialist Party, commonly known as the Nazis.

Hitler and the Nazis had taken the measure of the Judaeo-Communists and meant to eradicate their influence.  The Nazis outlawed the Communist Party and the Jews were disenfranchised within Germany having severe civil disabilities imposed on them.  The conspiratorial Jews, the Critical Theorists of the Frankfort School, Psychoanalysts and others removed themselves to the security of the US under Roosevelt.  In 1941 Hitler moved against the rats nest invading the Soviet Union.

To back track.  The Judaeo-Communist method was the system of the future.  As a man of the past Woodrow Wilson was ardent to establish a parliamentary system called the League of Nations.  The League set up as a supranational State with its capital in Geneva.  The various members sent delegates to Geneva who then chattered endlessly as parliamentarians do.

The newly established Soviet Union however followed the Jewish model.  The USSR as the successor State of Russia established the Communist International- the Commintern.  The central Communist government in Moscow then established subversive stations in key capitals- Berlin, Paris, London and New York City.  The Commintern was aided and abetted by the pinks, liberals and fellow travelers throughout the West as well as the Jews in all countries.  The various national Communist Parties were all over fifty percent Jewish so that the two organizational systems meshed creating very large and effective subversive organizations more effective than the League Of Nations.

When Wilson tried to impose his vision of a League Of Nations on the US he met intense resistance.  The opposition was powerful enough to thwart his design and rightly so.  Nevertheless the Judaeo-Communists ruled the propaganda media.  Defamation was the method of the propagandists.  Each and every person who opposed them, such as Henry Ford, Warren G. Harding and Herbert Hoover was vilified insufferably until their reputations and entire lives past, present and future were tarnished.

On the other hand the mantle of sainthood was promoted for people such as Wilson, Brandeis, and FDR.   One can tell how the lines were drawn by whose reputation was trashed and whose wasn’t.

Thus, when Hitler announced an independent course for Germany free from Judaeo-Communists and, equally as important if not moreso, International Finance Banking, he and Germany were surrounded by enemies bent on their destruction.  German hatred reached a frenzy.  Calls for the Final Solution for German’s appeared before any German retaliation.

To return to the situation in the United States.  The key to Jewish strategy was to control the food supply.  Thus in Europe the famines in Belgium, Germany, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union between 1914 and 1933-34 were all part of the European Holocaust engineered by the Jews.  The immiseration of Europeans was such as had never been seen in the world before while tens of millions of Europeans ceased to exist.  The European Holocaust was on.

The Soviets having gained control of the Russian food supply by the collectivization of farming, the murder of the successful farmers known as Kulaks and the re-Serfing of the unsuccessful plus the brutally engineered famines of 1933-34 put food in the control of the State.  Food was doled out in small amounts while requiring long waits in longer lines.

-4-

Food In North America

The attempt to control the North American food supplies began in an inconspicuous way just after the turn of the century.  While I may incorporate a divagation or two this section covers the food coops, Henry Ford and Aaron Sapiro.  The story has never been adequately treated.  The most ambitious  attempt has been Victoria Saker Woeste’s  badly flawed Henry Ford’s War On Jews And The Legal Battle Against Hate Speech published in 2012.

One can’t say the Jewish history in the United States has been distorted out of all recognition but it has been distorted while it is forbidden to objectively incorporate Jewish political activities into the context of American history.  One can read volumes that provide no indication of Jewish involvement in American affairs or its extent.  To do so, of course, would leave the author open to charges of anti-Semitism and hence the end of his career and perpetual blacklisting.

Thus few are aware of the various important Jewish individuals who have shaped and directed our politics and history.  Many of the names to be mentioned will be unfamiliar or unknown to the reader.  I will try to give some background.

Aaron Sapiro a central figure in the Ford story would be completely unknown today except for his million dollar lawsuit against Henry Ford.  That suit involved his financial misuse of farm coops to which Ford called attention.

Miss Woeste in her Henry Ford’s War On Jews creates the impression that Aaron Sapiro and his so-called California Plan was some sort of innovator.  In fact farm coops were already common enough mid-nineteenth century without any Jewish involvement.  Sapiro himself under the tutelage of one David Lubin stepped into an already existing orange grower’s coop based in Southern California although Lubin and Sapiro began their operations among a group of Jewish orange growers around Sacramento.

At the time the two orange growing regions in the US were Florida and California.  The California acreage was immense.  The State was nearly one large orange grove.  Florida had the advantage of better and more direct rail transportation to the large Eastern markets than California, thus California growers had to overcome disadvantages.  Originally it took over a month to move oranges to Eastern markets.  In the natural evolution of marketing practices then it would seem that Rubin and Sapiro took too much credit on themselves.  Something like Freud appropriating all psychology as his own.

What Ford objected to in Sapiro’s coop efforts was that Sapiro set up an intermediary company of middlemen between the farmers, growers and end users that benefited financially better than the producers.  There can be no doubt that this was one of the intents of Lubin/Sapiro’s California Plan.  The other was to gain control of the commodity in question.

Thus Sapiro’s plan was to include all producers in a coop with very long contracts of up to fifteen years.  The coop and administrators would take possession of each farmer’s total crop storing the crop themselves.  The farmers would be paid one third of the crop on delivery, the rest being distributed as the overall crop sold.  Thus payments would trickle in over time leaving the producers dependent on the coop managers for income. They essentially became slaves of the coop.

As can be readily seen the coops’ administrators would siphon off a considerable portion of the proceeds as wages and expenses while the producers would have no recourse as the managers were in possession and the producers were under a ‘sacred’ contract for a long period of time.  There was no escaping.  Sapiro himself was making a fortune of up to 80K a year before Ford caught on to him.

In addition, if all the producers of a commodity could be signed on, a coop would have control of the entire annual production.  The stated plan being to keep the crop off the market until the coop got the price it wanted.  Thus a consequence, rather intended or not, was that the population could be starved into submission.

Ford objected to this exploitation of the producers and public so that he began an expose of Sapiro using his very influential newspaper the International Dearborn Independent.  He began a twenty part series condemning Sapiro.  Sapiro took offense at having his activities exposed and brought charges against Ford.  One wonders what his defense would have been as his method was obvious.

Perhaps for that reason he adopted two tactics.  One was to require Ford to take the stand.  Ford had had a bad experience in a previous lawsuit against the Chicago Tribune in 1919 not wishing to have to endure irrelevant and humiliating questioning again especially as Sapiro’s questions would center on anti-Semitism rather than his own coop activities.  The second approach of Sapiro, indeed, was to introduce the irrelevant charge of anti-Semitism, hence the subtitle of Miss Woeste’s book, And The Legal Battle Against Hate Speech.  Thus Sapiro tried to make the trial one that would outlaw criticism of Jewish activities or ‘hate speech’ thus imposing civil disabilities on non-Jews while violating the Constitutional right of free speech.

As it was Sapiro interfered with the jury causing a mistrial.  Thus while nothing was resolved in the first trial Sapiro supported by the entire Jewish establishment of ‘international’ Jews was prepared to refile even though the first trial had exhausted his resources.  Ford himself was in the middle of his first model change from the T to the A and could ill afford to divert his attention.

Rather than pursue a trial that was no longer concerned with the facts of the Coop Movement but had degenerated into some kind of Jewish fantasy Ford gave Sapiro his million and threw in the towel.

However he had been right about Sapiro.  Sapiro mentor David Lubin who had migrated to Sacramento from New York State came up with the plan of the coop’s managers essentially buying the grower members entire crop on credit and then wholesaling it themselves sending the change to the growers on resale.  Sort of a consignment deal.  Lubin left the job of organizing to Sapiro going off to Italy where after conning the King of Italy he died of influenza in 1919.

Sapiro offering his legal services for a very high fee as Ford said then began organizing any commodity that was handy mainly trying to create coop monopolies in wheat that would give the Jews control of the most important food stuff after which one presumes they would demand extortionate prices.

Nor was Sapiro operating alone against Ford.  He had the support of the major Jewish organizations including Untermyer and Louis Marshall of the American Jewish Committee.  There were many important Jews who worked behind the scenes almost anonymously to achieve Jewish objectives.  Perhaps most prominent among these was the Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis and his acolyte the Harvard law professor Felix Frankfurter who would be increasingly influential through the FDR administration.

Equally if not more important was the Wall Street bear Bernard Baruch.  He gave up speculation under the Wilson administration to enter ‘public service.’  He was named as a collaborator of Sapiro along with Albert Lasker and Eugene Meyer.  Meyer was a banker and Lasker was a propagandist.  Once again Ford was correct.

Ford and his good friend Edison had worked out an alternative farm plan that Edison took to Baruch who was also viewed as a commodity expert to get his opinion.  Whether he knew of Baruch’s involvement in Sapiro’s Plan isn’t clear but Baruch dismissed the Ford/Edison plan out of hand.

The Kentucky tobacco growers sought counsel with Baruch and he referred them to Sapiro and his famous California Plan.  We also know what that plan was.  By this time Sapiro was sucking 80K a year out of the various coops he’d set up.

Then after 1920 Ford got wind of Sapiro and the California Plan deciding to expose Sapiro.  The rest you know.

The consequence of the trial was however disastrous for Sapiro.  He lost his reputation and was forced out of the coop movement.  So for the moment the Jews were frustrated which is to say they had to take a change of direction.  They went full out to defeat Herbert Hoover who was elected president shortly after the trial ended and they succeeded in getting their man FDR elected in 1933.  Brandeis and Frankfurter triumphed.  The two had been working together politically from 1916 on.

Frankfurter had developed a loyal coterie of radical ex-students.  Roosevelt depended on Frankfurter for nominations to posts so that when the AAA was formed- the Agricultural Adjustment Administration- Frankfurter filled the agency with his own men promoting essentially the same agenda as Sapiro although taking a different even more effective form.  By the time of Roosevelt’s death the administration was telling farmers what they could and couldn’t grow and how much.

Ford had already made himself the center of the storm in 1920-22 when he set about to resolve the Jewish problem that arose from the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 that essentially was a Jewish plot of the nature of the First Russian Revolution of 1903-05.  Ford was not alone, there was a worldwide reaction.  It was at this time the Jews pulled out the Protocols as a diversionary red herring.  From out of obscurity the Protocols took center stage as the Jews vehemently denied their authorship blaming them instead on ‘the one armed shaggy man’ otherwise known as the anti-Semites.

The Jewish damage controllers got to work.

Ford was not alone in his campaign to expose Jewish machinations.  In England the Manchester Guardian waged an even more intense campaign highlighting Jewish domination of the Bolshevist Soviet Union accentuating that it was part of the plan of the Protocols.  Unfortunately the Guardian relied too heavily on that publication.

The Jewish response was to claim that the Protocols were a forgery, the work of anti-Semites, while the Protocols were based on an illusory Dialogues Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu In Hell that was not only unheard of but something that no one had ever seen and hence couldn’t have been read and if unread how did anyone know the content.  This fact seemed to pass unnoticed.

At the same time applying political and probably pecuniary pressure to the prestigious London Times newspaper to have ‘experts’ proclaim that the Protocols were indeed a forgery they succeeded although the Times opinion was just that, an opinion.  The Times proclamation took the wind out of the sails of their adversaries who accepted the Times verdict without demur thus defusing the battle.

Ford continued the fight until 1922 when under a terrific barrage of abuse he too ceased publishing.  The 1924 expose of Sapiro that the Jews took personally had nothing to do with Jews per se but the diddling of the farmers by Sapiro and his buddies.

Part Four dealing with twenties and thirties follows.

The European Holocaust

Part Two

by

R.E. Prindle

 

Those who cannot draw conclusions

From three thousand years of learning

Stay naïve in dark confusion

Day to day living undiscerning.

–Goethe

 

The Europeans

 

While the origin of the Jews is clear, the origins of the Europeans is shrouded in mystery.  In fact, one has to go back to the origins of the species.  According to the ‘consensus’ opinion Homo Sapiens originated in Africa about 150K years ago.  At that point we are told they evolved from whatever species preceded them.  How and what happened next is anyone’s guess.

At sometime in the last 150K years the last Ice Age began that endured until the recent Age of Leo about ten thousand years ago.  Shortly after the Deluge of Leo fairly advanced communities began appearing around the Mediterranean shores.  This was after the Deluge.

Prior to the Deluge three significant memory traces of previous civilizations survive.  They are Atlantis, Lemuria and Shambala.  While no remains have been identified of the three it would still seem clear that something must have existed in the 140K years before the last Leo.  Thus I have to believe that all three memory traces had to have existed although the actual forms may be beyond recall, nor are any space visitors involved.

During the Ice Age the ice masses trapped enough water to lower ocean levels including the Mediterranean by three to six hundred feet.  This would have exposed the continental shelf in the Atlantic while exposing vast stretches of land on the Pacific shore.

Thus as Atlantis is said to have existed beyond the Pillars of Hercules, rather than being a vast island that sank it seems more reasonable to suppose that it existed on the exposed continental shelf.  It is conjectured that as the ice melted it remained dammed behind an ice barrier that breaking through released all at once a veritable ocean of water that raised sea levels very rapidly inundating the coastal regions and the Mediterranean.  Thus the notion that the wells under the earth gushed up becomes more intelligible.  Atlantis and Lemuria would have disappeared beneath the waves.

Shambala is said to have been an island in a large sea behind the Himalayas.  This would have been the home of the Aryans.  As is well known due to continental drift Africa has moved North and East from the ancient supercontinent Gondwanaland while Australia split off moving to the far side of the Indian Ocean.  Madagascar probably was formerly attached to Antarctica on the East and certainly Africa on the West.  India separated moving North and East.

Over a period of millions of years it collided with what was then South Central Asia.  The South of Asia and the North of the new sub-continent were then crumpled up into a long transverse group of mountain ranges stretching from the Alps of Europe into China.  The Himalayas formed by the collision of India with Asia formed the highest mountains in the world.

Behind the ranges the Black, Caspian and Aral seas have survived into our times.  The three seas form an arc so that it is not difficult to envision a fourth sea further East perhaps where the Talamakan desert is today.  At some time after the Deluge then if the memory traces are correct a place called Shambala or its equivalent did exist.  Whether the lake or sea in which the island of Shambala is supposed to have been was lush or dry the area was very likely lush enough to support a permanent city.  As the Himalayan Mountains rose to block precipitation northerly rivers still flowed North down the slopes from the glaciers.  Even today rivers flow from the Himalayas into the Taklamakan Desert where they are absorbed so life could have been supported well into the period of current desiccation.

When it became too dry the city would have broken up forcing the Aryans out.  As the Aryans moved from the area into China, India and parts West with a high level of civilization, a fully formed body of mythology they had to have before invading other areas.  They must formerly have had the leisure to form a history that is expressed in their mythology.  The various forms of that mythology from India to Europe are derived from that same source.  Indeed the languages from India to Europe come from a common source.  Nothing could be plainer.

The European then can confidently be traced back to a common source in Central Asia, possibly to the memory trace of Shambala.  The various European peoples arrived at different times in what was a very long diaspora, the Celts and the various German tribes.  In the course of time the Aryans were followed by the Mongols who possibly drove the Aryan before them.  First the Huns were driven West and then back out of Europe; then the hordes of Genghis Khan entered European history who also were forced to retreat, leaving Europe to the Europeans and…the Jews.

The two great mythological cycles that express the European mind are the Homeric and the Arthurian while the Old Testament of the Jewish bible gives expression to the Jewish mind.  They are very different in outlook.

Perhaps because the Homeric cycle is difficult to understand its immense worth is unappreciated even by the most cultured minds.  The Homeric cycle is one of the great achievements of the human mind.  While it is closely related to the Indian Aryan mythological cycle perhaps a variation in culture and other Indian additions make it more obscure to the Western Aryan mind.

In any event the simplistic Semitic vision of the Jews displaced the Homeric cycle in credibility; as impossible as that may seem, it became the foundation myth, at least, of Southern Europe while Northern Europe borrowing from the Caucasian remnant and Homer formed the vast, the immense, Arthurian cycle.

Thus the Jewish bible centered Christian religion and the medieval Aryan Arthurian cycle came into conflict.  This conflict was resolved by introducing certain biblical concepts into the Arthurian cycle subverting it to Christian ends.

The lineage of King David through Jesus of Nazareth in this story was transferred to Europe, not Europe as a whole but through what became England to the exclusion of Europe as a whole.  The kings and queens of England are, or were, believed to have inherited the sacred kingship of the line of David making England the new Israel.  Hence, one has the sect of the British Israelites.  Quite legitimate mythologically too.

To make the transfer, a myth was invented in which Joseph of Arimathea was said to have been given a chalice containing the holy blood of Jesus by Jesus himself.  Joseph of Arimathea then transported the chalice to England in a magical way making the English kings and queens of one blood with the House of David.  Thus England is the New Israel in that scheme of things.

On the other hand the ‘true’ story of the Grail was granted to Germany through someone called Kyot who appeared to the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach giving some authority to Germany.  Whether than has anything to do with the enmity the Jews cherish against Germans is open to conjecture.

The development of the Arthurian cycle took up most of the Middle Ages.  The last redaction was made by Mallory in the fifteenth century.  By then Europe was within striking distance of the Englightenment displacing mythology.

Leaping forward to that period it was then that the Aryan mind began to unfold in all its glory.  By then the European mind was ready to pass from the mythologic and mythopoesy of the biblical and Homeric mentalities to a rational understanding of external reality.  Thus the vanguard of the Enlightenment prepared the way for the Scientific outlook or Weltanschauung while Judaism and Catholicism remained sunk in subjective mythology.

The sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the development of the European mind into a splendor the like of which the world had never witnessed.  Truly, a New Man came into existence.  Godlike, as it were.

While a disruptive cleavage was necessary and inevitable political developments that erupted into the French Revolution of 1789 made the changeover the most destructive event the world had seen to that time.  A new murderous frame of mind came into existence.  The revolutionary bigots were cruel and merciless.  The bodies hit the ground and heads rolled in the sand.  This would set the tone for all future so-called revolutions.

The French Revolution evolved the reorganization of society that took place under the aegis of Napoleon.  When the Napoleonic world collapsed in 1815 it was a new world, bourgeois, and what has been called the Romantic Period.

The Romantic Period was a mythological reaction to the Enlightenment.  The Nixies and Pixies did not go quietly.  Frankenstein and Dracula rose in their stead.  The Nixies and Pixies throwing fairy dust put up a beautiful and entrancing if futile battle.  Science drove ahead.  Out of the demise of Medieval times arose one of the greatest achievements of the European mind, the University system.  The University was something that wasn’t even dormant in the world’s other societies, not African, nor Asian East and West.

The University allowed the brightest and best minds society had to provide a place to develop and innovate and discover.  For the first time intelligence was freed from superstition.

All the disciplines moved rapidly forward, Chemistry, Physics, Psychology, Botany, Anthropology, Geology, all of them.  These developments and sciences had to be organized into a system and that was done by a man called August Comte who established Positivism in competition with Romanticism.

Comte’s organization of the sciences was masterful; giddy with his sense of achievement Comte lost his cool nearly vaporizing in delusions of grandeur.  His great successor was the Englishman Herbert Spencer who carried things forward in a great leap.  By the time Darwin announced his vision of Evolution in 1859 the groundwork or future developments in learning was laid

The problem with Science and the Common Man is that most scientific concepts are uncommon, they can’t be seen or handled in the sense of, say, blacksmithing.  Of course machines and devices can be devised, microscopes and electron microscopes, so that things that Nature probably doesn’t even know are there can be seen but even the machines are beyond the comprehension of the Common Man.

So the world as it existed in religions like Judaism and Christianity was slipping away.  The Common Man’s world was being turned upside down.  Frustrated and uncomprehending he was supremely ready for manipulation.

After Darwin and Positivism came the New Romantics of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, a beautiful period of the human mind.  Unable to resist the findings of science the New Romantics blended science and fantasy in a very attractive fashion.  While it hasn’t really been given the attention it deserves the science of Psychology had been quietly developing and if not noticed at least not with alertness.

About the time of Darwin’s Origin Of Species the awareness of the conscious and unconscious minds was becoming more prominent.  First looming into human awareness through the researches of Dr. Anton Mesmer in the latter eighteenth century there was furious activity.  Central to psychology is the concept that Mesmer first exposed- hypnotism.  Hypnotism is the key to the unconscious.  Called variously hypnotism, Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism throughout the Nineteenth Century hypnotism is the basis of the unconscious.

While from Mesmer to Jean Martin Charcot  hypnotism had been derided as charlatanism suitable only for stage shows, Charcot working from the French hospital, the Salpetriere, legitimized hypnotism as a medical procedure.  He and the great Pierre Janet developed the basic concepts of what would be called psycho-analysis when organized by Sigmund Freud and C.G. Jung.

Psychology, hypnotism and the unconscious mixed perfectly with Neo-Romanticism.  Wonderful novels appeared.  The now neglected stories of the Frenchman, Camille Flammarion, R.L. Stevenson’s great Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the wonderful three novels of George Du Maurier of which his middle novel, Trilby, is a dream one wishes one could have dreamed, Marie Corelli wrote some wonderful stories, Sherlock Holmes probably fits in there as well as the Oz stories of L. Frank Baum.  Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan novels.  William Morris, Rider Haggard, an astonishing list of writers and their stories.  An amazing period.  H.G. Wells.

While Freud made the concept of the unconscious rigid, in the last half of the nineteenth century the unconscious was more fluid and flexible.  While Freud made it the repository of evil impulses, the early researchers made it a source of creativity.  It is actually an individuals’ choice.  One’s future hinges on that choice.

While these marvelous intellectual developments were in process the practical world was also changing rapidly.  Science turns into technology and technology turns into money.  Money turns into banking and the medieval world is left behind.

While money was significant in the medieval world, wealth in that world was land based.  One might say European wealth contrasted to Jewish wealth.  In the New Order money wealth would be dominant over land wealth, hence the rapid Jewish rise in the nineteenth century after Emancipation.

One might say that the need for money became necessary during the reign of Louis XIV in France.  Metals were no longer an adequate way to conduct business.  The man for the times was named John Law.  He introduced the concept of paper money.  Law was a Scottish adventurer who had thought deeply on money matters.  He came to the conclusion that the proper basis of money was what an economic unit, say France, could produce.  In fact his plan was activated in France.  While his scheme was sound if the money supply was kept in line with national production unfortunately Law issued more paper money than the market would bear and his plan went awry.  However paper money was here to stay as other thinkers began to work at the kinks in the money supply.

Thus the basis of the modern economic structure was laid.  Money and what it bought became the basis of our economic system.  With the money economy inevitably went compound interest or in another word, usury.  The conversion to money from land as a basis of wealth underwrote the destruction of the old European aristocracy that knew little of the functions of money or usury and the rise of the moneyed Jew.

The technological development of modern society was funded by money, not land.  The advent of steam, specifically the railroad called for vast sums to build the infrastructure.  In Europe only the Jews had the necessary cash although the need for money called for pooling of money which led to selling fractions of the roads to the general public as shares.    The shares led to the creation of an entirely new monetary device called the stock market- Wall Street in the US.  As a new device the stock market was a mystery to its users, not unlike computers today.  Coupled with the avarice of its users the market was and perhaps has been since a cause of great anguish.

In the course of things Europeans began sending its culture to various places in the world trying to make a better life for themselves perhaps not unlike these outlier communities who are now sending colonists to Europe seeking a better life  than they can provide for themselves there.  Six of one, half a dozen of the other.

The principal outlying European communities were in North America- Canada and the United States.  In inhabiting this very sparsely settled continent the Europeans merely shoved aside the indigenous stoneage peoples to occupy the land themselves.  This activity was still in process in 1800 when the unfolding of the European mind began in earnest.

Steam was actually first applied to locomotion in this raw land when a way was devised to apply steam power to a ship.

As revolutionary as this was it was as nothing compared to the steam railway.  The utility of the railroad was recognized by the Americans immediately.  Railroads sprang up in the original colonies and with them came the stock market.  After Lewis and Clark showed the way to the Pacific and the actual extent of the continent was known the westward move was on.  How extraordinary that the railroad would arrive just when it was needed.

The discovery of gold in California thirty-four years later called for a trans-continental railroad.  Nineteen years later, interrupted by a devastating Civil War of five years, there was one.  The trans-continental railroad was a vast undertaking calling for more money than any individuals, combines of individuals or even joint stock companies could manage.  Hence the assistance of the people through the US government was called for.  The country demanded the railroad.  The government supplied money while donating millions of acres of land to the builders from the public domain.  Of course there was graft; when isn’t there graft?  But the job got done in more than a timely manner.

While the Jews were firmly entrenched in Europe, they were very few in the US until after 1870.  As the Protestant United States had fluid mores, no landed aristocracy, while already as a trading people being somewhat familiar with  money and interest the Jews having lost their advantage had a negligible part in the economy until after the Civil War then developing rapidly with the influx of the East European Jews from 1870 to 1900 and beyond.

Thus by 1900 the German Jews were already established and while being in competition with the European Americans on equal terms began to assume a controlling and dominant role in the US and Canada.  The Jews led at least a semi-autonomous existence on both sides of the Atlantic, what Henry Ford would later accurately call the international Jewish conspiracy.

This whole race issue goes much deeper than that.  What was implied by Evolution was later confirmed by Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton.  Galton was a sociologist.  There has been no escaping the obvious conclusion which those condemned by biology to a lesser degree of mental ability find their inferiority intolerable.  Quite naturally the next step for the lesser endowed is to destroy those more favored by biology.

Darwin announced Evolution at a time of the highest level of White Supremacy among the world’s cultures.  In 1860 Whites were as gods to Africans, Middle Easterners, the Chinese and East Asia in general.  Had the superiority been a matter of surprise and temporary military efficiency as when the Mongol Huns overran Europe or when Genghis Khan’s hordes swept across Central Asia into Europe a military domination of that kind may be endured but it will pass.

However if one race or species is genetically advanced indicating permanence how can one measure the loser’s grief?  In point of fact one side must exterminate the other and it will happen as it is happening today.

Secondly Francis Galton began devising a means where the unseen could be measured; in other words he began to devise tests that could measure intelligence.  It would thus be learned that only fifteen percent of the White population had what might be termed superior intelligence; that is they could deal with abstract matters.  This was of cardinal importance in an increasing scientific and intellectual milieu in which fully eighty-five percent of the most capable race or species were mentally less able.  As for the other races they were completely out of the running.  These crude nineteenth century findings would later be confirmed by genetics in the next and twenty-first centuries.

Thus the horrors of the twentieth century German hatred began to form in the nineteenth century.  Discrimination against the superior took form.  In the course of history by the mid-nineteenth century the leading nations were France, England and Czarist Russia.  Italy and Germany still had no nation State but were a congeries of small principalities.  As pictured literarily as comic Ruritarians they were jokes to the French and English while allowing those countries to dominate a ‘balance of powers.’

Then both Italy and Germany unified into national States thus upsetting the balance of power.  The Germanies having united under Prussia’s Bismarck in 1871 avenged their humiliation by the Frenchman Napoleon by overrunning France thus announcing that a new sun had risen.

While the Germans had always evidenced an intellectual superiority in their cutting edge universities, now united they began to challenge England and France for industrial and commercial pre-eminence while at the same time the US was also trying to achieve economic dominance.  Thus England and France began to cultivate a German hatred.  This hatred was not directed at individuals but the German people as a whole.  As symbols of the German people Bismarck, Kaiser Wilhelm and Hitler might have had the force of hatred directed at their persons but only as an obvious object of German hatred.

After the First European Holocaust of 1914-18 the weak and divided Weimar Republic which may be seen as an extension of the comic principalities was tolerated but only because it had been completely emasculated thus no longer able to compete with the French, English and Americans.  Most of the criticism of Bismarck, the Kaiser and Hitler can be dismissed as anti-German envy.

In the East in order to develop their country the Romanov Emperors had invited several tens of thousands of German to settle in Russia in the Ukraine and the Volga Delta.  Thus there was a large Volga settlement as well as eventually a few millions in the Ukraine.  These immigrants were given favorable concessions to lure them to Czarist Russia.

The Germans employing superior intelligence and industry rapidly prospered more than the Russian and Jewish farmers.  Now, a slight aside, until mid-nineteenth century Jews named themselves Isaac ben Abraham and such but those who used no last names, Germans included, were required to assume a last name.  Russian Jews thus could choose either a German or a Russian last name.  As Germany was viewed as superior vast numbers of Russian Jews chose German last names rather than Russian offending the emperor.   One of these families were the Bronsteins, farmers in the Ukraine.  One Bronstein later took a Russian name calling himself Leon Trotsky.  Now, the Bronstein family lived across a ravine from a colony of German farmers.  In his autobiography Trotsky compares the sod huts and run down farming equipment of his family with the German farmers across the way.  He admiringly notes that their wood frame houses were well maintained and painted.  Even the farm equipment was well maintained and freshly painted as well.  The Germans working virtually the same land prospered more than his family and the other Russian or Jewish farmers in the area.

Given such a superiority it would have been only a matter of time until the Germans became the most wealthy of the Russian peoples while one presumes they would become prominent as Russian politicians.  Essentially occupying the position the Jews envisioned for themselves.  This apprehension enraged the Czars.  Thus by the 1880s the Czarist government began to harass, that is demean, their German population.  The benefits that had lured them to Russia were withdrawn.  While the German youth had been exempt from military service they were now drafted at the age of twenty-one.  Once in the military they were discriminated against, severely punished for minor infractions or perhaps no infraction at all.  This in turn caused large numbers of twenty year olds to return to Germany while those Germans remaining were persecuted under the Czars while under the Communists they were subjected to genocide before the German invasion.  Stalin deported them en masse to the gulags and essentially murdered the lot.  Genocide.  None of these crimes had anything to do with Hitler or the Nazis.  It was just German hatred because the Russians could not compete with them.  This also applies to the Jews who immersed themselves in German hatred because of their perceived inferiority.

Jewish German hatred was also in evidence from the nineteenth century on.  Jewish envy of the fabulous unfolding of the scientific European mind unmatched by anything Jewish drove them into a frenzy,  it totally contradicted their fantasy of their own superiority.

The envy has been made evident by today’s Paideia Foundation of Barbara Spectre in Sweden in which she hatefully condemns nineteenth century European brilliance that she describes as ‘European knowledge’ contrasting it with ‘Jewish knowledge’ that she is working to put on an equal basis with ‘European knowledge’ by legislation.  She says this must be done so that Jews won’t be shamed by the contrast.

Unable to surpass European scientific knowledge the Jews tried to subject scientific knowledge by injecting Jewish religious interpretations.

The problem was reaching crisis level at century’s end.  At the time of Darwin’s announcement of Evolution Patriarchalism was firmly established having triumphed over Matriarchalism during the Arien Age.  Matriarchalism had been forgotten, erased from the memory, until memory traces were detected after Darwin by the brilliant Swiss mythologist, J.J. Bachofen.  Resistance to Bachofen’s rediscovery was very strong not receding until after 1950.  Behind Matriarchalism Bachofen also detected an earlier stage of mental evolution he called Hetaerism or one of shared use of women.  This would have been a form of communism or collectivism that may be natural to humans.  Communism too was suppressed in the West in favor of Individualism and private property.

The communist mentality submerged reemerged out of the French and Industrial Revolutions taking the form of Socialism in reaction to the other natural order of things, that is, Individualism and private property that Socialists labeled Capitalism depicting it as evil.  Just as Socialism failed in the Hetaeric period so it fails in the modern age.  Nevertheless the Socialist party was captured by the Jews who then used it to defeat the European order of things.  This was achieved in 1917 but the conflict was reaching a head at the turn of the century.

This spawned two unique events, to take the lesser first:  Then as now the Jews infiltrated all European establishments.  Having done so all European information, plans and so forth were made known to them while Jewish information and plans was more or less impenetrable to Europeans.  Or perhaps they were just comfortable and invulnerable in their superior position.

Posing as European national patriots this information, spying, was shared by the International Jewish Organizations.  Thus in 1895 the French military discovered that a Jewish army officer was spying.  This was true, but the French accused him of spying for the Germans, this was not true.  Like all other Jewish spies Dreyfus was passing the information to Jewish organizations who were thus informed as to the intents of in this case the French government but other national governments were infiltrated in the same manner.  Thus the Jews were able to control or at least direct the course of events.

Thus in the twentieth century the Jews, Johnathan Pollard, was spying for the Jews in the US.   The Jews, Israelis, then used this information for their own world wide purposes.  When caught Pollard was sent to prison where he remains today despite all Jewish attempts to free him.

Dreyfus was convicted and sent to Devil’s Island.  This set off a colossal effort to reverse the decision that split France into Dreyfusards and anti-Dreyfusards while becoming an international cause celebre.  Eventually toward century’s end the Jews triumphed freeing Dreyfus.  The Dreyfus Affair went far toward giving the Jews parity or semi-autonomy in France, having shamed the French, and actually throughout the West.

The second major event was the success of the Austrian based Jew Theodore Herzl in setting up Zionism after 1895 which being embraced by the Jews of Russia furthered the revolutionary Jewish war against Russia.  It is highly probable that a document that came into importance in 1917 was written at this time.  This document was the infamous Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion.  I think the word Zion in itself gives away its provenance.  No members of the Russian secret service, the Okhrana, posited as a possible author would have been aware of the importance of Zionism at the time the Protocols were written.  It had to be the Jews.

Herzl, the founder of Zionism was Viennese.  Vienna, at the time was home to Sigmund Freud as well as being a center of furious Jewish activity coordinating the transfer of the Jews of the Pale to the US.  1895-96 was nearing the height of Jewish emigration from Russia to the US.  Vienna not surprisingly also had a very active lodge of the Jewish International Order of B’nai B’rith, a sort of Jewish Freemasonry.  Sigmund Freud had a deep abiding hatred of Europe and Europeans.  He would have exterminated them all and after 1917 he got his chance.  In 1895 Freud joined the B’nai B’rith lodge of which he remained a member all his life attending the weekly meetings.  This would give B’nai B’rith almost equal importance to Freud as his weekly meetings of his Psycho-analytic Order.

Freud said he joined because he had found a lodge of men like minded to himself.  Thus one must think, they wanted the destruction of Europeans too.

Also in 1895 Theodore Herzl the founder of Zionism wrote his book The Jewish State published to acclaim in 1896.  The Jews had been agitating for the overthrow of the Russian State for decades, assassinating a Czar or two along the way.  In 1903 Zionism already the Eastern Jewish religion, the First Russian Revolution was generated by the Jews.

The Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion first saw light at the end of the revolution in 1905.  The document made no impression at that time having to wait for the Second Russian Revolution in 1917.  At that time the Jews indignantly labeled the Protocols a forgery of the Car’s secret service, the Okhrana, written in Paris using the Dialogues as a template.  A huge mystery has been created around the Protocols making it difficult to solve the problem of provenance for which no satisfactory solution has ever been made.  I propose the solution here.

Knowing that they would be accused of fomenting the First Russian Revolution, which they did, the Jews anticipated the need for a red herring to confuse the issue.  I don’t know whether Theodore Herzl was a member of B’nai B’rith but I wouldn’t be surprised if he was.

At any rate we have a group of likeminded men one of which was the master propagandist Sigmund Freud.  Freud was well along in the development of his psychological ideas while he would become the master propagandist of all time.  It might be said that he directed or coordinated the propaganda campaign from Vienna though personal encounters as well as his hugely influential writings.

The Protocols are written in a heavy handed Jewish manner that seems authentic enough.  Since Freud either directed or had a hand in directing the revolution of ’17 and its brutal aftermath there is every reason to conjecture that he had a hand in concocting the Protocols.  The Protocols once disseminated had a two fold purpose.

On the one hand they could be used to ensnare the European reader so that he could be denounced as an anti-Semite for believing such ‘an obvious forgery’ as was Henry Ford and on the other hand as a manual of instruction for Jewish revolutionaries hidden in plain sight.

It has been claimed that the Protocols are based on an earlier 1860s book The Dialogues Between Montesquieu and Machiavelli In Hell said to have been written by the Jew Maurice Joly in 1860s France but this is poppycock.  There is little similarity between the two while it isn’t improbable that the book was written after the fact to mystify the Protocols.  It was announced that the Protocols were based on the Dialogues however the Dialogues were non-existent, no extant copy could be found.  Thus a dramatic search was conducted to find the Dialogues to prove the provenance of the Protocols.  It was positively stated that this book that no one had ever seen would do this.  After several fruitless searches through all the libraries of Europe a copy was said to have been found in the British Library.  Obviously this was as stage managed as finding the record ‘An Old Shoe’ in the Library of Congress in the movie Wag The Dog.

If one were to transpose the story of the Protocols into Wag The Dog the story would be nearly identical.  In Wag The Dog Washington politicians wanted a phony war to influence an election.  They call the imaginative people in Hollywood and ask if they can dummy up a war until after the election.  As the powers can control the media the unsuspecting public is fed canned news that no one can check out for accuracy stirring the public into a patriotic fervor.  The producers dummy up a hero named Shoemacher.  He is to be the returning hero.  In order to drum up support the producers get their musical hacks to dummy up a song sounding like a twenties country song called ‘Good Old Shoe.’  This song is recorded then aged to sound appropriate to an old 78 RPM.   The record is then placed in the Library of Congress where it is miraculously discovered becoming an immediate hit.

There in a nutshell you have the story of the Protocols Of Zion.  I conjecture that the Protocols were dummied up in the Lodge of B’nai B’rith probably under the supervision of master propagandist Sigmund Freud.  As they are called The Protocols of Zion it seems positive they were written no earlier than at least 1898 or shortly thereafter.  A copy was then given to the Russian priest Sergei Nilus who appended them to the end of a book he wrote where they were ‘discovered’ in 1905.  As the revolution failed they were apparently not needed so saved for the 1917 revolution at which time when the suckers took the bait they were denounced as raving anti-Semites hence sub-human or less.  Animals, my god, pure Animals.

When the need for a predecessor document was needed the idea of the Dialogues was invented.  After a long exciting search, I’m not going to go into the whole story here, through all the libraries of Europe the single copy that escaped destruction by Napoleon III was unearthed in the British Library.  Sound anything like Wag The Dog?

The Jews ruthlessly pursued the Czar in the years leading up to the 1903-05 Russo-Japanese War which they fomented.  On the one hand labor unrest was driven to a fever pitch as the Japanese were stirred up.  To finance the war the Czars needed loans.  The Jews withheld loans while admonishing the European bankers to withhold loans also.

Now, at the turn of the century the safe haven of the US became the base of operations for the international Jewish conspiracy as Henry Ford said.  While the Japanese wanted to war on the Russians they lacked the means to pay for one.  Here the US Jew Jacob Schiff of the Investment Banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb stepped up to the plate.  Schiff was a trustee of the Equitable Life Assurance Society.  The Equitable had two hundred million in reserves that Schiff appropriated to lend to the Japanese clandestinely.  They attacked and defeated the Russians but the revolution coordinated to the Japanese attack failed.

So Jewish vengeance was delayed for a decade or so.  The First Russian Revolution would lead to the First European Holocaust of the Great War or what would later be called WWI.

 

The European Holocaust Part Three follows.

Anything Less Than Real:
Warren G. Harding Rings In The New Era
by
R.E. Prindle

Dedicated to Ann Coulter who is the only other person I have heard of who realizes the importance of Warren G. Harding.

It is time to reevaluate the Harding presidency as well as perhaps the Republican Interregnum between the Socialist Wilson and FDR administrations.

Perhaps the first thing to do is to dispel the notion that the Harding Administration was extraordinarily corrupt as administrations go. If one is going to call the administration corrupt then it must be against a normal standard and not isolated as a phenomenon. While Harding inherited Wilsonian corruption after the Great War, Roosevelt created the corruption of post-WWII. The money involved in the latter dwarfed anything that preceded it by incalculable amounts.

A major source of corruption after the Great War was the disposal of stores purchased for the war. These were fairly trivial amounts by later standards. In contrast the Roosevelt administration sequestered some piddling amounts of Japanese property and mega enormous amounts of German property including huge companies and scads of patents, copyrights and trademarks. Yet one never hears of these thefts, only a couple refrigerators left on back porches by Japanese. Ask yourself why? These German properties were under the personal authority of Pres. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the officer of the Alien Properties Custodian of David Bazelon. Bazelon was both a Jew and associated with the Super Mob and Chicago’s Outfit.

After the war Bazelon used his office to enrich both Jews and criminals by selling off the pittance of Japanese properties and, in today’s values billions and billions of German properties for a penny or so on the dollar thus stealing from the Germans and defrauding the US Government of billions.

I don’t think it is necessary to list other financial malfeasances; Bazelon alone surpassed any corruption of the Harding years including Tea Pot Dome and Elk Hills. So yes, there was the inevitable postwar corruption in the Harding Administration, but not by it, of negligible proportions compared to Roosevelt.

Having put that out of the way let us now consider the state of the nation Harding inherited from the Democratic Wilson Administration. Two new developments, unprecedented developments, had occurred that were novel for a new administration to deal with. One was the terrible advent of Prohibition and the other was the women’s vote.

In this first election in which women cast their ballots we had the first landslide victory in US history. Harding captured sixty percent of the vote and all but a hundred or so of those of the Electoral College. Apropos of that Harding has been ridiculed because his campaign manager, Harry Daugherty said that Harding looked like a president should. Well, he did.

His opponent, Cox, on the other hand, looked like a mousy dip, which isn’t to say he was one, he looked like one. He was unhandsome. The choice for women thus was between a nice, big handsome Harding who looked the part and a mousy Cox who didn’t. The election was the first landslide in US history. I leave it to you to draw your own conclusions.

The ground rules had changed whether you believed in it or not, elections could no longer recite the issues as men understood them but campaigns had to be crafted to include the very different concerns of women. In my estimation Harding clearly benefited from the female vote.

Prohibition was an entirely different challenge. Prohibition was an achievement of female politics. The campaign for it was carried out by criminal means. The most famous prohibitionist was the violent, psychotic Carrie Nation who entered people’s places of business and began laying about with an axe. She was allowed to get away with it. The promoters of prohibition were too limp brained to think the matter through to its conclusion apparently unaware that alcohol could easily be smuggled in from abroad or even, heaven forbid, manufactured illegally.

Some form of alcohol, wines and beers, had been part of civilization from its inception and gave some surcease from the cares of life. While the vast majority of drinkers were able to manage the pleasures there was naturally a percentage who abused alcohol. When distilled liquors became available the problem of abuse was compounded.

Nevertheless, wine, beer and strong spirits comprised a huge industry employing undoubtedly tens of thousands of people. In the reformers’ mind, as always, it seemed better to punish the majority to suppress the few.

It should have been obvious to these unhappy reformers trying to make everyone’s life as miserable as theirs that an entire illegal industry would rise from the ashes of the legal and that that illegal industry would necessarily have to be criminal and clandestine. What can one say about reformers?

Thus when the Volstead Act was passed an unprecedented wave of criminality swept over the country like a tsunami. We can blame Prohibition on the Wilson Administration on whose watch the bill was passed and enforced. Thus the Harding Administration was called on to deal with this enormous level of corruption generated by do gooders. Once again Prohibition far exceeded any of the usual political corruption of the twenties.

Now, the control of prohibition passed into the exclusive control of two immigrant groups, those of the Italians, actually Sicilians, and the Jews. Using the incredible profits of Prohibition Jews and Sicilians then were able to assume a dominant if not controlling position in US politics while being able to buy into legitimate businesses. As incredible as it may seem by the mid- to late thirties many people considered crime as just another way of doing business, an industry. Needless to say bootleg profits were used to corrupt politics at every level. How could the Harding Administration escape? Once again, just look at the FDR Administration with open eyes.

The US has always taken a romantic or sentimental view of immigration, still does. As if it justified immigration the Romanticists said that the immigrants were only seeking a better life, content themselves in the superiority of having created not only a better life than anywhere else but the best life. Liberals believe in their own superiority.

One imagines that the only reason to emigrate from one’s homeland at any time in history was to seek a better life. Perhaps invaders drove you from your country making it necessary to find a life, better or worse, somewhere else and at someone else’s expense. Perhaps one’s situation was so bitter that any place else was more attractive. Actually the prime motivating force was US employers seeking cheap labor. Not very romantic really.

Nevertheless unlimited immigration began after the Civil War during the seventies increasing yearly until 1914 when the Great War began cutting off all emigration. It was then that problems not seen as too significant became prominent. US immigration had been from Europe and when the continent went to war these old national loyalties caused fractures. It became apparent that the Melting Pot notion had failed and as Teddy Roosevelt said, the US was nothing more than an international boarding house. Sentiment was strong for the Central Powers, who we have all been taught to despise, but not as strong as that for the Allies, who we have all been taught to revere.

The Irish acting on the principle that the enemy of my enemy is my friend openly sided with the Central Powers against the English hence targeting US shipments to England for sabotage. The Jews whose chief enemy was the Russians refused cooperation with the Allies until Germany took Russia out of the war and then at that time and only at that time, the Jews gave the Allies full cooperation against the Germans who they then believed that they could include in the Bolshevik Revolution post war.

The Italians took a stance but issued a recall of men back from the US to fight in the war. After the war Mussolini attempted to send the Italian wounded back to the US to be medically cared for at US expense.

Of all the immigrants US nativists considered Jews and Italians as unassimilable. If nothing else, Prohibition proved that assertion as US laws meant nothing to either group. Thus it was left to the Harding Administration to deal with the long deferred problem of immigration. It would do so for the first time from a realistic perspective rather than a sentimental or romantic one.

A concomitant of immigration was that a great many of those ’seeking a better life’ had left their homelands a step or two ahead of the police as either criminals or political fugitives. They were revolutionaries seeking to overturn their own governments, Communists in a word. Their position had been strengthened by the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia while the Wilson Administration was actually Socialist in sentiment and had the war lasted a year or two longer, in fact. Wilson was on the verge of establishing a third term dictatorship to do just this, not unlike what Roosevelt achieved, when he was struck down by his stroke thus aborting that plan.

The Revolution did not confine itself to Russia but was actually being attempted through 1919 and 1920 into 1921 and the Harding Administration. The country was nearly in total disorder when Harding was sworn in, March of 1921. A necessity of the first importance was to restore order, that is, put down the Revolution. Harding was equal to that task. The Chinese proverb and curse is that may you be born into interesting times. While the elements defeated by Harding have successfully maligned his memory Warren G. Harding was actually one of the greatest US presidents.

2.

No historian I have ever read regards the problems Harding had to solve or his lack of experience in doing so. Harding was the editor of the small town newspaper of Marion, Ohio, West of the Alleghenies in Middle America. Harding worked hard, applying himself intelligently, making a success of his paper.

He became friends with Harry Daugherty, an Ohio politician who propelled him first to the Senate and then in 1921 to the Presidency. Years before his election Harding began an affair with a young women by the name of Nan Britton by whom he had a child. Naturally Harding had no desire to have this publicized yet he behaved honorably always supporting Nan and his child. He was a decent and good man.

Much has been made of this affair as though this were immorality of an extreme nature. Historically affairs and illegitimate children have been common. No big deal. How can one be expected to condemn Harding when the later John F. Kennedy had mistresses in the White House when Jackie was not about. What is one to think of Kennedy when he had his secret service agents rounding up prostitutes from the street, three at a time, for his dalliance?

FDR publicly lived with his mistress in Georgia while his beauteous wife, Eleanor pined away up North. Bill Clinton kept his member limber by having his female aides give him fellatio during business hours in the Oval Office. Hillary didn’t object.

Was Harding a moral reprobate? Hardly.

Then, the historians attempt to make him an ignorant oaf. A competing presidential candidate William McAdoo described Harding’s oratorical abilities, not surprisingly, as ‘an army of pompous phrases marching across the landscape in search of an idea.’

Oh well, politicians, how much sense do you get out of one of them? As an example of supposedly meaningless blather they offer this pre-election statement of Harding:

Quote:

America’s present need is not heroics but healing;
not nostrums, but normalcy;
not revolution but restoration;
not agitation, but adjustment;
not surgery, but serenity;
not the dramatic, but the dispassionate;
not experiment, but equipoise;
not submergence in internationality, but triumphant nationalism…

Unquote.

Rather than the nonsense it is portrayed as by his detractors, the speech details the problems the country was facing and the results Harding hoped to bring about and in which he largely succeeded. I’m sure his audience would have understood, whether consciously or unconsciously, exactly the issues to which he was referring. Only absurd historians have made a jumble of it. What the list amounts to is an eight point program not too different in approach than Wilson’s fourteen points. So we have a sort of political continuity between the administrations.

Let’s consider the list:
1. Not heroics, but healing. Refers to any number of problems, the waves of industrial unrest, hysterical politics and what not, a general calming down, a reduction from hysterics to the dispassionate.

2. Not nostrums but normalcy. A nostrum is a pet scheme for bringing about some social or political reform. There were enough of those going around- Prohibition, Communism et al. The issue here was the use of the word normalcy which in 1920 was incorrect although in common usage now. Normality would have been the correct word but normalcy actually carries the correct meaning that normality misses. His use of normalcy was a cause of immense hilarity and satisfaction to his detractors.

3. Not revolution but restoration. An obvious reference to the Bolsheviks and the social unrest they were causing.

4. Not agitation but adjustment. Once again political and social agitation were rife calling for the discard of current ways for impossible utopian ideals.

5. Not surgery, but serenity. Agitators called for drastic social surgery when once again calm and reflection were called for.

6. Not dramatics, but dispassion. Calm down, lower the level of hysterical passion.

7. Not experiment, but equipoise. Prohibition was a disastrous social experiment from it conception, what was needed was balance.

8. Not submergence in internationality, but triumphant nationalism. Clear enough, the League Of Nations was unworkable, out; tariffs were in, America First. The Naval Treaty.

As Harding was elected by a landslide one has to believe that the electorate knew exactly what Harding meant and whole heartedly approved of his choices. Nor did Harding disappoint; he was very popular during his presidency only successfully denigrated after his death when he was unable to defend himself.

3.

In office only two and half years before he died in suspicious circumstances how did Harding conduct his administration? One can’t imagine today the tremendous political energy released by the Bolshevik Revolution. The world was terrified while an angry civil war ensued across the Western world financially and militarily over an exhausted Europe. The civil war lasting for several years was fought on several fronts. The war had turned from a national war to an ideological war. Reds versus Whites. In Russia the ideological war was fought on three fronts, the North of Archangel, South in the Ukraine and in Siberia East of the Urals. American troops and munitions were involved. In the end the Whites, or Czarist troops lost.

Revolutionary activities sprang up in all countries including the US. While the US was aiding the Whites, the Jews raised enormous amounts that they traitorously funneled to the Bolsheviks under the eyes of the Wilson Administration. Jacob Schiff, the Jewish Prime Minister, was called to Washington by Wilson to defend himself against charges of Bolshevism. Wilson let him off the hook. Thus as in the Viet Nam war of the 1960s and 70s Government efforts were nullified by Fifth Columnists aiding the enemy.

The Bolshevik victory in Russia gave Socialism a political base from which to operate so the Socialists and Communist cells in the US were activated lending their support to Soviet efforts. Suddenly a socialist presence was clear in labor, the churches, the arts, publishing, across the board. While official Communist membership was relatively low so that it could be denigrated as no threat it must be remembered that the successful Bolshevik Party in Russia was just a splinter of US numbers, so size is irrelevant; organization is the key.

America’s first reaction was sharp as A. Mitchell Palmer, the Attorney General of the Wilson Administration rounded up several thousands of Communists for deportation to Russia. Here the Fifth Columnists sabotaged this wise response citing peacetime US practices for this wartime attack instead of the wartime provisions Wilson had used during WWI. Palmer was compelled to release all but a couple hundred who were put aboard ‘the Soviet Ark’ and sent to Russia including Leon Trotsky who had been living in New York City and without whom the Russian Revolution might have been reversed. Trotsky was actually temporarily detained but then released for some reason.

There were substantial crackdowns on all Socialist activities including the IWW or Industrial Workers Of The World who were reduced to impotence. Their leader, Big Bill Haywood was spirited out of the country to Russia. As Harding came to office there was a virtual civil war in progress. The fact has been obscured or erased by subsequent historians who are compelled to take the Red point of view.

At the same time as this undeclared war was being fought the troops were being brought back from the land of hinky, dinky parlay voo. How ya gonna keep them down on the farm after they’ve seen Paree. Even though their lives had been totally disrupted very often destroyed for no reason now that their job was done they were thrown on the trash heap. Except by Warren G. Harding, the new president.

A not overly favorable biographer, Samuel Hopkins Adams, writing in his biography of Harding, The Tragic Years, comments favorable thusly, p. 284-5.

Quote:

The glory of heroes is soon departed. The public which welcomed with oratory, banquets, and ticker-tape our fighters, returning victorious from Europe, quickly forgot those of them most sorely in need of care. Two years after the Armistice the plight of war’s human debris was pitiable. Of these the most desperate cases were 71,000 mental patients and 38,000 tuberculosis victims. F.W. Galbraith, Jr., National Commander of the American Legion, estimated on the basis of an investigation, that there were 10,000 of the disabled in cellars, poorhouses, and insane asylums. T.W. Salmon, a disinterested and competent investigator, thus reported:

“Veterans with nervous or mental troubles were without provision for care and were quartered in institutions for the criminal insane, addicts, and vicious degenerates, without Federal supervision.”

No agency in Washington was equipped to handle a problem of this magnitude. Nor was there any special public interest in it. The war was over. “Let’s forget its’ expressed the attitude of a people sated and bored with emotion.

The President (Harding) did not feel that way about it. His humanitarianism revolted from such neglect. He acted wisely and constructively in welding the disparate, overlapping guardianships into one official entity, the United States Veterans Bureau…

Unquote.

Compare that to the neglect and humiliation of the returning veterans of Viet Nam. The so-called Red tribunes of the people, these creeps who sabotaged their brave men’s efforts on the battlefields, heaved garbage on them as they debarked from ships and planes.

Even WWI vets who had been promised a bonus or tip for the needless disruption of their lives were denied their due by the People’s Commissar Franklin Delano Roosevelt. They were compelled to storm Washington in a semi-violent attempt to compel the fulfillment of the government’s promise. The same army they had served in was turned against them. So much for FDR and the New Deal.

With the end of the war a whole host of what were actually revolutionary acts were released. Palmer of the Wilson Administration certainly treated them that way. As a result his house was bombed putting his teeth on edge. A huge bomb not unlike that used in OK City of recent memory was detonated on Wall Street. Law and order was rapidly breaking down. Mail robberies were a daily occurrence while millions of dollars of stolen Liberty bonds were being traded. Those millions today would represent a billion dollars or more. This was big money happening. Incredible amounts of money that no group of individuals could possibly spend. Where was the money going?

A very able member of the Harding cabinet, Post Master General Will Hays tackled those problems and solved them in short order. Such a man was a danger to the Lords of Misrule. What happened to Hays? In addition to all the other problems, the Guardians of Decency were alarmed, justifiably so, at the moral content of movies. Rather than accept outside censorship of the movies the moguls decided to police themselves and as their Top Cop they lured Will Hays away from his post by an offer he could have refused but found it impossible to do. The offer was for 100,000 dollars a year. That right 100K in 1922. Was that bribery or what? After only nine months in office Hays was offered the equivalent of five million dollars a year to supervise Hollywood morals. Who wouldn’t take that while being flexible enough not to lose the job?

Since the offer came from Hollywood that tells you who was behind the mail robberies and stolen bonds and lets you know what they were worth.

Harding outlawed the Communist Party briefly in 1921 getting right on that offense too but the Fifth Columnists got that overturned.

Thus within months of being in office Harding had cleaned up a large part of untoward activity while if couldn’t actually suppress Communist activity he was at least able to force them to turn their damper down while forcing them into even deeper clandestine activity.

But, as you can see he was building up a lot of enemies who wished him dead while wanting his memory exorcised.

And then Harding had to deal with the problem of immigration, also within the first months in office. The cry for the restriction of immigration, whether it came from North, East or South had been voiced at least as early as the 1840s when the potato famine drove a couple million Irish to the New Island. Really teeming masses. And then the Forty-eighters came over as a result of the failed Communist Revolution of 1848, more wretched refuse, that led ultimately to the post-war revolutionary activity.

These members were relatively small but in the 1870s Jewish immigration from the Pale of Russia began in earnest resulting in several million people who the restrictionists believed, as it turns out, rightly, were unassimilable. And then in the nineties the Sicilians added New York to the terminal end of their migratory route from Buenos Aires through Brazil and Central America. These people too were thought rightly to be unassimilable.

And then those sweet little old ladies hacked Prohibition through the Amendment process apparently believing that the law was the law and everyone would abide by it. They held that futile belief even though they had engaged in rampant lawlessness to get the Amendment approved.

Well, a void had been created and you know what nature thinks of voids. They get filled; nature abhors them or, so we are told. What people rushed in where angels, or at least, less venturesome mortals fear to tread? These two unassimilable peoples, the Jews and Sicilians.

Nobody gets credit for being right in such situations the restrictionists were right.

In most analyses of any period the activities of Jews are always suppressed; you never are allowed to see them until they want to be seen. Nobel awards time being one. While being Omni-present we are asked to believe that their only effect on society is to win Nobel prizes. In point of fact Jews, having great presence of mind, always work behind and under the scene. Thus to understand their effort on the America of the Harding Administration one has to set a background. I’m not going to go back too far settling on the transfer of the Jewish World Government from France when the Alliance Israelite Universelle was sent to the US and became the American Jewish Committee by 1906. This was the international Jewish government that Henry Ford referred to in his Dearborn Independent articles later collected and published under the misleading but accurate title: The International Jew. The articles were published during the Battle For Ford Motors largely during Harding’s tenure.

The leader or Prime Minister of the world Jewish government was a man named Jacob Schiff, himself descended from the German Forty-eighters rather than being a Russian Jew.

In the Jewish war against the Russian Czarist government Schiff played a leading part. He was personally responsible for engineering the Russian defeat during the Russo-Japanese war of 1905.

During that war the Jews of Europe and the US denied the Russians loans to conduct war properly while Jacob Schiff personally provided the Japanese with the funds without which they couldn’t have waged war.

While Schiff himself lacked enough of the ready for the war he was on the board of the Equitable Life Assurance Society. The Equitable was sitting on a hoard of 200 million, in today’s dollars, billions. Schiff illegally used this money to loan to the Japanese. The loan caused a tremendous scandal in which Schiff skillfully avoided detection shifting the blame to the other directors.

The peace treaty was chaired by Theodore Roosevelt in the US at which proceedings Schiff led a delegation of Jews who participated as a Jewish National delegation. Stacking the deck against the Russians.

Not content to punish the Russians for alleged injustices toward Jews in Russia, Schiff and ‘the international’ Jews worked to cause the US to sever diplomatic relations with Russia which result was achieved in 1913. Thus the US became dupes of the Jews.

In 1913 the Federal Reserve System was created as a private corporation owned by ten other corporations of which nine were Jewish firms from the US and Europe. The tenth was the Rockefellers. This private firm printed US currency that it loaned back to the US government at interest, thus creating a tremendous income to be used for worldwide Jewish machinations for which there was no accounting. I would call it a brilliant move but when you’re dealing with Liberal suckers it isn’t much of an achievement.

While the Jews had had no presence in Washington DC prior to the Wilson Administration, beginning in 1913 Wilson flooded his government with them much to the consternation of the English led government of the previous hundred years plus since independence. You know, it’s not like people couldn’t see what was going on.

Coincidentally as Jews were taken into government the Anti-Defamation League of B’Nai B’rith was established to counter any objections on ethnic grounds. Wilson himself was a socialist so that when the US entered the Great War a socialist takeover of the industrial system began. The railroads were immediately nationalized while the War Industries Board required all industries to submit financial details and to submit them for governmental regulations by the WIB controlled by Jews under Bernard Baruch essentially setting them up for seizure.

Of course, this provoked a violent reaction especially from Detroit and the auto industry. Ford and the Dodge Brothers objected strenuously. The Dodge Brothers used intemperate language reflecting on Baruch’s ethnic heritage that Baruch never forgave. Ford was more restrained but tarred with the Dodge’s brush. The Dodge Brothers died mysterious deaths in 1920 while their company went into limbo for years until Wall Street persuaded Walter Chrysler to take the company. An attempt was made on Ford’s life. This confrontation was also the beginning of the Battle For Ford Motors, begun in 1918 but aborted by the war ending. It was begun again on a financial front by Jewish banks trying to force a takeover.

So, the Socialist/Communist takeover of the US was very narrowly avoided. Yet the Socialist revolution had to be financed with hard cash that the Socialists didn’t have. Where was the cash to come from? From the US. The Jews had created the Federal Reserve System in 1913 very fortuitously it would seem just before the major expansion of the money supply caused by the World War. That war from the Allied side was financed entirely by the US. At war’s end the European debt to the US was enormous while it would never be repaid. It was just forgotten. Consider that when you get exercised by the current US debt. It can be forgotten too.

Yet the ten merchant banking firms who owned the Federal Reserve collected interest on every dollar of that debt. Thus the US dollars went to nine Jewish firms in both the US and Europe plus the Rockefellers.

As I have noted, as soon as the Bolsheviks seized power, Jacob Schiff rushed huge loans provided by those banks to finance the Bolshevik takeover. At the same time the devastation of the peoples of Central and Eastern Europe was total. There were still roughly five million Jews in those areas. Jewish American ‘charitable’ organizations operating under the name of the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee began to funnel enormous amounts of cash and supplies destined only for their co-religionists into this volatile political environment where the first people on their feet would have a commanding role. Socialism or no socialism money was the key, as always. As the aforementioned Liberty bonds in Jewish hands had been stolen that was a pile of free money that was laundered. Crime was about to be organized in a way that would provide other funds in large amounts. There was a succession of Jewish crime lords that generated the money. The first in the teens was a fellow called Monk Eastman, as his criminal methods became outdated he was sent to jail to be replaced by the notorious Arnold Rothstein who set up the modern organized crime structure but as his methods became outdated he was replaced, murdered, and Lepke Buchalter took over the role to be replaced in the forties by the major fund raiser Meyer Lansky who engineered that huge cash cow, Las Vegas and gambling. As different methods were needed he, in turn, was replaced by Sidney Korshak of the Super Mob. Thus the Jewish over world was integrated with the Jewish underworld functioning as a unit.

In celebration of these criminals the Jews recently created the National Museum Of Organized Crime in its capitol of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nationality referred to in the National Museum is that of the Jews otherwise they would have called it either the American-Jewish Museum or simply the American Museum Of Organized Crime. So you can go to Vegas and admire the criminals deeds of these stellar Jews.

Seemingly almost a gift from heaven to the criminals, Prohibition came along in 1920. This gave the financial basis for organizing crime as a ‘business’ thus opening vistas only dreamed of before the Volstead Act. Prohibition also created an insuperable problem that plagued the Republican Interregnum. Amazingly Prohibition began in a Democratic Administration and ended almost by fiat in the Democratic Administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt twelve years later, one of the those coincidental linkages between Wilson and FDR. Upon taking office Roosevelt held up a glass of obviously bootleg beer and announced that Prohibition was over. Just like that. Was the fix in from the beginning to end or wasn’t it?

But, back to the Battle Of Ford Motors for a moment. The bankers wanted Ford Motors not only because they hated Henry Ford but because Ford Motors was a bonanza waiting to be realized almost bigger than Prohibition.

Ford valued his company at something over a billion dollars. He had completely vertically integrated his company. That means he not only made the cars but he owned the metal mines and smelted the ores, he owned huge forests he cut and processed, coal mines to fuel his furnaces and even the railroad that carried the coals from the Line to River Rouge. He had subsidiaries worldwide. By 1920 Fords could be bought actually in any country in the world. Like Sherwin-Williams boasted of their paints, Ford covered the world.

The value of the company was compacted. In the bankers’ hands the company could be broken up into its component parts increasing the stock market value to three or four billion, all free money, especially as they were trying to buy Ford at the bankruptcy rate of 10 cents on the dollar. So you see how fiercely the Battle For Ford Motors was fought. You can see why Ford fought back by running his exposes of Jewish machinations, which were true, in his Dearborn Independent. The Independent was also the first nationally distributed newspaper by the way.

Henry Ford won the battle but ultimately lost the war.

So as you can see, Harding was elected into one of, if not the, most tumultuous times in American history and acquitted himself extremely well. His efforts were also appreciated by the American public that awarded him the highest approval ratings during his term in office.

His actions also made him many enemies not least of whom were the Communists and Jews. While Jews were prominent in Washington during the Wilson years and again in the Roosevelt years they were conspicuously absent during the Republican Interregnum. The Communists too, while if not destroyed, were harassed and suppressed forcing them to adopt different tactics while frustrating their desire for an immediate conquest.

On the immigration front too, Harding’s policy of realistic restricted immigration frustrated the desires of the sentimental immigrationists. Harding passed a restrictive bill quickly in 1921 that was augmented under Coolidge’s Administration in 1924 and survived almost intact until 1965 thus giving the country much needed breathing room to attempt to assimilate those already here to attempt to turn them into one national unit. It didn’t happen.

It is not particularly well known but in 1914 the Jews had formulated a plan and organized it to transfer the entire Jewish population of the Pale of Settlement to the US utilizing the ports of New Orleans and Corpus Christi, those ports being less conspicuous than New York City and Boston.

The war, of course, aborted that plan, and just as the Jews were about to activate the plan after the war Harding slammed through a restricted immigration act based on quotas seemingly aimed directly at excluding Jews period. This was an unforgivable crime in Jewish eyes while also forcing them to change their plan of the conquest of the New Promised Land.

Harding also dealt with internationalism rejecting the League Of Nations in favor of nationalistic policies. In the first years of the new century the Japanese had sent paramilitary troops for the pre-invasion of California, thus all the Japanese immigrants were men without women. The Californians who had already forced passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 objected vehemently to the Japanese invasion. Rather than offend the Japanese by protecting his own country the Teddy Roosevelt Administration came to a ‘gentlemen’s agreement’ whereby the Japanese would no longer send ‘working men’ but only doctors and lawyers. I think Teddy called his administration the Square Deal. He must have known what he was talking about; that solution was certainly square.

After the war then with no military invasion imminent these men demanded women. Thus began the strange phenomenon of the Japanese Picture Brides. The men and women exchanged pictures making their selection on that basis and then the women were sent to California for marriage. Many interesting situations arose from that.

Still there was a great deal of hostility between the US and Japan. The hostility was actually caused one sidedly by the US. Very embarrassing situation. It began in 1853 when Admiral Matthew Perry ‘opened’ Japan at the mouths of his cannon. What’ll it be he sneered from the poop deck: Yes or no.

The relationship was exacerbated in the 1870s when anti-slavery Yankee planters landed in Yokohama and forcibly abducted a hundred or so Japanese to labor on their old plantations in Hawaii. I can see how the Yankees got so exercised by Southern slavery in the US. So, while I have to side with the US the Japanese have always had a legitimate grievance that could only be satisfied by war. I mean, come on, they had to regain their manhood after having been emasculated in 1853.

Nevertheless in 1908 TR said we would have to fight those fellows within thirty years and he only missed by a few years.

Thus in 1922 the Washington Naval Treaty was negotiated as, we suppose, an example of triumphant nationalism as opposed to the internationalism of the League of Nations. The Naval Treaty limited the size of naval fleets inadvertently favoring the Japanese. But the belligerence remained at a high level that left the then territory of Hawaii vulnerable. Naval fuel was shifting from coal to oil so while coaling stations had been established there were no oil storage facilities on Oahu the site of the Pearl Harbor Naval Station.

This was a dangerous situation. It was difficult to get Congress to act so some enterprising American oil men, Doheny and Sinclair, set about to remedy the situation on their own. Now, too oil fields, Tea Pot Dome in Wyoming and Elk Hills near Bakersfield, had been set aside as Naval Preserves. The storage facilities in Hawaii would be naval, so there is a connection.

Doheny and Sinclair set about to build the oil storage on their own and to fill the tanks they negotiated to use the naval preserves Teapot Dome and Elk Hills for oil supplies. This deal was used as an excuse to create a huge scandal, although after Harding’s death. Nevertheless the storage facilities were built and filled with oil so that when the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor duly came the US was duly prepared.

Two and a half years into his presidency Harding began a tour of the West Coast during which he suddenly died. Some said poison some said heart attack but they got him into the ground so quickly there was no autopsy. Anytime the rules are broken its cause for suspicion. Some said his wife killed him but I have a hard time believing that.

Of course we have no way of knowing whether he was assassinated or not but there were many who may have wished his dead. Harding had sidetracked the Revolution, derailing it, while forcing the Bolsheviks further underground. His immigration act had thwarted Jewish plans to bring over five million fellow Jews. So actually Harding was ‘responsible’ for the death of all those Jews in the holocaust although I don’t think he’s ever been officially accused.

Neither the Jews nor the Communists have earned a reputation for being forgiving so both groups certainly had a motive. But, the problem is incapable of solution so let it drop.

Harding was only in office for two and a half years but what a two and a half years, hey? What a bunch of insoluble problems dealt with and well. He defused the Revolution, ended unrestricted immigration, tried to limit naval armaments and battled old Demon Rum. I suppose if he had had the chutzpah of FDR he would have said simply that Prohibition was nonsense and refused to implement the law. Would he had.

The profits of Prohibition went to establish Organized Crime. And from booze the criminals went on to gambling breaking down US legal resistance by using States Rights to legalize gambling in Nevada. From Nevada it has spread to every State in the Union. Carrie Nation is ultimately responsible for creating Organized Crime and hence the corruption of the Nation. That’s what happens when you put the girls in charge. And the little girl didn’t even have the vote. No, but she had the Power Of Positive Thinking. Just get it done.

My point is that Warren G. Harding rather than being the worst president of the United States was perhaps one of the greatest. It was just that he offended some vindictive people and they had the power of the press…and radio…and the movies…and…

The Protocols of Zion were so Nineteenth Century. Post-war America was the New Era of the Twentieth Century.

Edgar Rice Burroughs As A Feral Child

by

R.E. Prindle

Cronus:

Cronus married his sister Rhea, to whom the oak is sacred, But it was prophesized by Mother Earth and by his dying father Uranus, that one of his own sons would dethrone him.  Every year, therefore, he swallowed the children whom Rhea bore him, first Hestia, then Demeter and Hera, then Hades, then Poseidon~ Robert Graves, The Greek Myths

I. The Father As A Cannibal Figure

     Following Poseidon came Zeus.  In place of Zeus Cronus was given a stone which he swallowed instead.  When Zeus grew up he then castrated Cronus, replacing him.

     While on the one hand an astrological myth denoting the precession of the equinoxes from one Astrological Age to another, on a psychological level the myth relates the fear of the Father that as the strength of his sons waxes his own wanes resulting in an eclipse.

     Different human fathers react in different ways.  Some nurture, some castrate or cannibalize their young.  This is a serious problem for the son.  For instance, what Tom Brokaw, a thoroughly castrated son, is pleased to call The Greatest Generation who were so enamored of their success in WW II, that they chose to emasculate a whole generation rather than surrender or even share power.

     I correspond with David Adams from time to time while doing my writing from whom I sometimes receive valuable input.  I had come to the conclusion that ERB’s father, George T, was a problem for ERB, especially as represented by ‘God’ in Tarzan And The Lion Man.  The new year opened with Hillman publishing Dodds’ feral child collection which clicked in my mind.  The week before ERBzine published my Part III, Two Peas And A Pod of the Tarzan Triumphant review.  David Adams commented favorably on my comments about the Jungian Old Man archetype.  He said in an email to me:

     I agree with your interpretation that “characters like Tarzan and John Carter serve in the capacity of Old Man/Jekyll figures while the actual Old Man figures who are betrayers serve perhaps as Hydelike figures as represented by the father.” (David quoting me.) Those old man figures, early and late, are also cannibals who are hell-bent on eating him up while then spreading the bones across some desert for the hyenas to chew.  Who was that old cannibal with the cancerous face followed by a pair of African wolves? (Jungle Tales of Kipling)

     As can be seen I picked up on the Father figure but adding the cannibal detail adds the needed dimension for full comprehension.

     George T. had been bothering me for some time.  The love-hate relationship ERB had with him is quite obvious, but then it occurred to me that the other sons had the same relationship to their father while George T. appeared to program them all for failure- that is they not surpass him in their lifetime somewhat like Cronus of Greek mythology.  He made them all dependent on him.  The supplicating tone of the letters from college of sons George and Harry is all too obvious.  George T. sending the boys to Yale without the means to support a position would have had the effect of emasculating them relative to their fellow students thus subordinating them.

     Then on graduation he took them into his battery business.  As a businessman in Chicago it wouldn’t be unreasonable to believe that George T. had some relatively influential contacts in town who might have been able to place Yale graduates advantageously but he chose to keep the boys with him and subordinate to him.

     The battery factory proved dangerous for his son Harry who developed respiratory problems from the battery chemicals plus perhaps in psychological reaction to suppression by his father.  He went West to join fellow Yalie, Lew Sweetser, in Idaho.  Son George, who had had enough of working for his father, also fled to Idaho to join Harry and Sweetser.

     None of the three knew enough about the cattle business to survive so that by 1913 when George T. had his basket pulled up all the sons were back in Chicago in various degrees of failure or, at least, lack of success.  As of that date it would appear that like Cronus George T. had swallowed or cannibalized his sons.

     There was a Zeus figure in the bunch who didn’t want to be swallowed and that Zeus figure was ERB.  Like Zeus ERB was the youngest son.  ERB developed independently of his brothers who were approximately ten years older than he.  Thus when they were at Yale ERB was attending grade school.

     As I pointed out in my Books, Burroughs and Religion George T. was especially rigorous in the attempt to emasculate his youngest son.  His effort culminated when he sent ERB to military school.  This was a form of dislocation and rejection that ERB could not bear.  He tried to escape but his father sternly returned him to the Michigan Military Academy.

     The effects of this were that ERB was declassed as he considered the MMA a rich kid’s reform school.  Thus to some extent he was criminalized in his own mind.  His reaction was also seminal in the formation of his two principal characters John Carter and Tarzan.

     His hurt was so strong, his separation from his parents and home so complete that he became psychologically orphaned.  His parents died to him the day he was returned to the MMA.  He adopted the drunken Commandant, Charles King, as his mentor or surrogate father.  While betrayed by his father ERB apparently thought he found a friend in King.  In that capacity King became the model for Lt. Paul D’Arnot of the French Navy.  D’Arnot was the man who tamed the feral boy that was Tarzan introducing him to civilization much as King taught Burroughs how to survive and prosper at MMA.  Or Burroughs remembered it in that manner.  There may also be a literary connection to D’Artagnan of Dumas’ Three Musketeers.

     This makes the period between the arrival of Jane and her party and the arrival of D’Arnot in Tarzan Of The Apes of special interest.  I’m not sure what the period represents in Burroughs’ own life.

     As his creation Tarzan is a feral child it follows that ERB considered himself alone and on his own as a feral child himself.  A romantic notion but one no less real to him.  Thus just as Tarzan’s parent’s died with the baby becoming a member of an ape tribe so Burroughs began a wild and difficult period as his parents died for him.

     These events occurred just as Rider Haggard was becoming famous for his great African trilogy of King Solomon’s Mines, She and Allan Quatermain which ERB undoubtedly read at this time.  Conan Doyle began his Sherlock Holmes mysteries and H.M. Stanley disappeared into an unknown Congo in pursuit of Emin Pasha.  The West to East transit of the Congo impressed ERB greatly as his own heroes later crossed Africa in the same direction.

     Being a complex individual ERB no longer wished to even acknowledge that he had ever had parents; thus his first creation- John Carter.  As Carter only came into existence when ERB was 36 the writer had plenty of time to knock around learning the odd legend here and there.  John Carter then is a version of the Great Historical Bum- the hundred thousand year old man of folklore.

     John Carter could not remember his parents.  In his memory he had always been the same age he was.  In the words of one of my famorite songs, Stewball, he didn’t say he was born at all, just blew down in a storm.  Certainly Burroughs had heard of the Comte de St. Germain who flourished at the time of the French Revolution.  As esoterical cult figure today, St. Germain’s  legend would have been more prominent from 1875 to 1911 than today.  Like Carter St. Germain claimed to have been alive forever.  In Revolutionary Europe he got away with it.  Calgiostro was another Revolutionary charlatan claiming mysterious antecedents who would have intrigued ERB’s imagination.  It seems certain the two would have been topics of conversation in the time before radio, TV and movies so it wouldn’t have been necessary  for ERB to have read anything.

     I doubt if he had read any of the books on Dodds’ list although one never knows but the list goes to show that the feral child would have been a popular topic of conversation.  In my opinion then ERB’s literary future was cast when his cannibal father returned him to MMA.

     He graduated from the MMA in ’95 but either couldn’t or wouldn’t return home staying on as an instructor.  In ’96, just before the summer break which might have necessitated a return home he joined the Army being sent directly to Arizona without passing through Chicago.  Was he avoiding returning home?  One can’t say as in ’97 having found Army life not to his liking he received an early discharge.  He could have kept going, of course, as many of us in his boots did, to LA, San Francisco or wherever but he chose at that time to return to Chicago.  Of course, Emma was calling.

     From ’97 to ’03 or so he worked for his father which he found as difficult as his brothers had.  Fleeing Chicago to Idaho in 1903, when he came back a year and a few months later to do anything (that word anything has some meaning in this context)  rather  than work with his father.  He became one of the poet Robert Service’s ‘men who don’t fit in.’  He had a very difficult few years from 1905 to 1913 bumping along the bottom.

     But then in 1911 he began his rise via his intellect.  He began to write becoming an immediate literary success of sorts.  By 1913 when he was about to become a financial success through his intellectual efforts thus escaping his father’s curse, his father died.  The young Zeus thus never got to castrate his father Cronus.

     One can’t know what would have happened to his psychology had ERB been able to present his father with evidence of his success.  I’m reasonably certain George T. would have belittled  or rejected his success as like Cronus his youngest would have replaced him.  He wouldn’t have liked that.

II.  A Hand From The Grave

     Had that happened and ERB been able to prove himself a greater than his father it is interesting to speculate as to what effect that might have had on ERB’s psychological development.  As it was, a few months after his father’s death he packed up family and belongings and got out of town as far as he could go to San Diego, California and stayed away nine months.  Time enough to be reborn.

     There are numerous examples of betrayers who are cannibals in his corpus, in fact there is so much betraying and cannibalism in Burroughs’ work I find it slightly offensive.  Rather than work up a list, which for the time being I leave to David, I’d rather concentrate on the most spectacular cannibalistic betrayer of the oeuvre, God of Lion Man.

     I know I just wrote about Lion Man but with David’s interpretation of cannibalism I can present a much more cogent image.  David’s much more into Jungian synchronicity than I am but the scene with God presents a remarkable occurrence of synchronicity.  The scene is very complex.

     George T. was born in 1833 so the book was written on his 100th birthday.  Chicago was incorporated in 1833 while it was celebrating its Century Of Progress forty years after the Columbian Expo at the same time.  Both events occurred just at the time that Burroughs realized he had lost control of his ‘meal ticket’ to MGM.

     MGM was undoubtedly a component of God, the Father, being combined with the Chicago that fathered him and George T., his actual father, in his mind.  From these components ERB then creates the magnificent apparition of God as man and beast.  God has the mind of divine power such as had Zeus but is still a Cronus, is, in fact, the ultimate cannibal.

     Tarzan and Rhonda  represent Burroughs’ Anima and Animus so that God has the whole man in his power in its component parts- the X and y chromosomes.  God tells the pair that he is going to use them to rejuvenate himself by cannibalizing them.  The Father’s desire and the Son’s fear.

     If God represents George T. on one side, MGM on another and organized religion on a third then even though ERB thought he escaped his father in 1913 by his intellectual efforts the father reaches up from the grave on his 100th anniversay to claim his son again.

     At this time Burroughs also wrote Pirates Of Venus and Pirate Blood.  Both would refer to the idea that MGM pirated his creation from him while the very despondent Pirate Blood is almost terrifying in its manic depression as the balloon rises and sinks being almost submerged in the ocean or the waters of oblivion, the subconscious mind, insanity, that I believe we can see it as the insanity of despair.  At the end of that story the hero pairs up with a desperate woman who I believe we can read as Florence.  All very transparent really.

     So there Tarzan/Rhonda/Burroughs is trapped in a prison.  He attempts his earlier escape of rising through his intellectual powers, that is, he ascends through a shaft in the roof.  Unlike the first time when he surprised and astonished the world with John Carter and Tarzan, God, the Father, is waiting for him preventing his use of his intellect.  In point of fact Tarzan And The Lion Man was a dismal sales failure thought by Burroughs to be caused by MGM.

     If his previous four previous Tarzans under the Burroughs imprint had been successes it seems strange that the truly excellent Tarzan And The Lion Man should have failed.  Failing proof of sabotage on the part of, say, MGM, one can only say the public taste is fickle or perhaps the innovative dust jacket didn’t look like the usual Tarzan dust jacket and fans just passed it by.  It is also true that the book was a put down of MGM.

     Tarzan/Burroughs sallies forth from his hiding place against superior forces.  He is knocked unconscious.  A sure sign that Burroughs is under supreme stress.  Meanwhile God’s castle, in other words the literary structure of the last twenty years is going up in flames.  The MGM pirates have lifted ERB’s life work.

     He has to finish the story so he turns the tables on God taking him captive and making him do his bidding.  Tarzan helps God recapture his City then abandons him disappearing down the hole of the subconscious to a lower level from when he emerges to be claimed by the Wild Thing- Balza, the Golden Girl, or Florence.

     In a thinly disguised scene Tarzan, unwittingly it seems, wins Balza from her former husband much as Burroughs took Florence from Ashton Dearholt.  The important thing here is that a transition has been effected from one world to another.  The intellectual City of God has been abandoned in favor of a world of the senses.

     It is at this point ERB abandons his own feral boy persona of horses, puttees and other symbols to become a sort of effeminate Dandy.  He now affects tightly fitted fashionable suits almost effeminate in appearance.  He turn into a party animal and if he had been a moderate drinker during his teens, twenties and early thirthies he now becomes almost a lush.

     So, in the end, ERB was probably devoured by the Father in Cronus fashion.  In the Myth Zeus forced Cronus to vomit up his brothers and sisters and he castrated him.  In real life ERB was castrated and swallowed down.

     He put up one heck of a fight that arouses the warmest admiration of him.  One wonders, that if when all is said and done anyone can escape the imprint of those formative years.  Is one’s whole horoscope cast in the womb and those few short months after birth?  Sure hope not.

 

A Review

Themes And Variations

The Tarzan Novels Of Edgar Rice Burroughs

#14 Tarzan The Invincible

Part VI of X

by

R.E. Prindle

Inside The Gates Of Opar

Edgar Rice Burroughs

Life is just too short for some folks,

For other folks it just drags on.

Some folks like the taste of smokey whiskey

Others think that tea’s too strong.

Me, I’m the kind of guy who likes to ride the middle

I don’t like this bouncing back and forth.

Me, I want to live with my feet in Dixie

And my head in the cool blue North.

–Jesse Winchester: Nothing But A Breeze

     And now we come to the heart of Edgar Rice Burroughs.  One reason he is literarily disdained is that the story is not the story.  Porges, p.524:

     As the story progresses the perceived theme of a worldwide conspiracy is abruptly abandoned.  Burroughs in his contempt for the communists refuses to allow them to be sincere even in their Marxist goals.

     This is not true.  Porges has misconceived the story.  To quote the sixties Jewish revolutionary Mark Rudd:  The issue is not the issue.  By that Rudd meant that the Jews had created a diversion to mask the true issue which was the establishment of the Jewish culture as top culture or dictator in this multi-cultural world.

     Burroughs intent is exactly the same as regards Tarzan.  True, Burroughs has contempt for Communism but that is merely a frame story and a side issue.  The true issue is that Tarzan’s authority as guardian of Africa is being challenged on the spot.  The duel is between himself and Sveri mano a mano.  He discredits the collectivity through the individuals.  Thus at novel’s end Tarzan sits in state as Guardian or Emperor disposing the fates, godlike, of the remaining conspiritors.  Magnanimously he allow Paul Ivitch (Paulevitch) to be escorted out of Africa rather than be thrown on his own resources that would have resulted in his certain death.

     The issue within the issue, as always, is Burroughs attempt to resolve his psychological difficulties.  Thus one has the Colt-Drinov combination, possibly reprsenting ERB and Emma, an episode within Opar of Nao who may represent Florence releasing him from the prison of his marriage to Emma, and Colt-La, the Anima and Animus problem.  Tarzan and Colt change partners so that La nurses Colt and Tarzan nurses Zora.  But to that in the next section.

     While one expects a pure shoot out with the Communists, Tarzan is not going to defeat them by direct action but by a terrorist campaign of which Tarzan is the jungle master.

     To compound the problem Burroughs confuses realism with dreamwork.  This is not a realistic novel but a dream fantasy.  It was said that Burroughs wrote out his dreams which has a basis in fact.  The scenarios may have originated in his sleeping dreams but then he modifies them in day dream style while consciously molding the story for political and commercial purposes.  A writer does need readers.

     To give a basis for comparison for the dreamwork I’m going to play Freud here and offer up a dream of my own; it is similar to Burroughs’ in many way.  Since integrating my personality I don’t have wonderful dreams like this anymore.  As Jung correctly surmised when one integrates the conscious and sub-conscious minds memory destroys the symbolic basis of your dreams.  I can analyze the common place dreams I have now even as I dream them.  Something is lost, something is gained, but it might be of lesser value.  I think I like the mysterious flavor of the smokey whiskey even though the water I have to drink now  is better for me.

     In my dream I began on the edge of a vast desert dotted with a few oases while far off in the distance twenty years away, rather than miles, away in the the distance a great white shining mountain arose.  The distances were so vast they were measured not in miles but years.  Indeed, the years of my life.  I had to traverse the vast desert reaches between the oases.  Each oasis merely refreshed me for the next perilous journey.  Having traversed the years I came to the great white shining mountain.  One might compare it to the tor containing the treasure vaults  of  Opar out on its desert.  These are symbols common to multitudes.

      I then came to the white shining mountain which might compare to the city of Opar.  Censorship prevented me from climbing the mountain at that time.  In other words in the control of my subconscious, consciousness was denied me.  I approached the mountain from the back where I noticed a trickle of water leading into and down the mountain.  I tried to drink the water but as it ran through a pure salt bed it was too salty.  Unlike Burroughs who was in the pits of darkness I was always bathed in a clear light which came from nowhere.

     I followed the little stream down the subterranean path into the mountain.   Thus I had all land and no water, a barren psychological situation.  Following the cave down I came to a series of gates made entirely of steel.  I hesitated to go forward but there was no going back.  I was impelled into one of the gates which turned into a chute that spilled me out onto a steel floor where unseen hands seized me pushing me into a steel room as the steel door slammed shut.  Like Tarzan beneath Opar I was a prisoner with no seeming way out.

     As I looked around I realized that this was a laundry room.  All steel, of course.  While I had no food I now had sinks full of water.  My situation had been reversed from all land to all water, from the pure masculine to almost pure feminine.  Where before I was barren now I was spilling over with wisdom.  I knew I had to get out of there reasonably soon or I would starve to death.  There was impenetrable steel all around.  But I had plenty of water.  Too much water.  Looking around I spotted ventilation ducts along the ceiling.  I conceived the notion that I could drink lots of water then urinate in the ducts which would create a foul odor that would be distributed throughout the rooms above.   They would search for the source of the odor thus opening the door of my prison.

     The ducts were difficult to reach but I was able to urinate in them.  As I expected voices came down the duct asking ‘What is that smell?’.  The door to my prison opened inward so I stood to the side that opened waiting.  Sure enough a couple maintenance men flung the door open bursting into the room.  I slipped out the door behind them unnoticed.

     I now descended still further until I came to a bank of elevators.  One door was open for which I made a rush.  The elevator was packed with boys I knew from high school.  With doubled fists they pushed me back refusing to allow me in the elevator with them.  Mocking me as the doors closed I was left alone way down there.

     There was a flight of stairs but censorship prevented my using them.  I waited in vain for another elevator.  As with dreams I next found myself at the back of the mountain but the path into the mountain had disappeared so I now had to climb The Great White Shining Mountain.

     If, like Burroughs, I were writing a story I would provide a plausible story line for my escape but I’m not.  I’m merely transcribing a dream.

     The reason the mountain shone was because it was covered by snow several hundreds of feet, possibly thousands, thick.  As previously the water in the stream was too salty to drink now it was frozen.  The sun shone brightly, not only brightly, but brilliantly, as I began my climb.  I had left the subconscious for the conscious as I strove for the light.   The climb was long from the back of the brain to the forebrain but not tiring.  Apart from the barrenness of the snow I was enjoying myself.  Would it be too offensive a pun if I said I enjoyed being high?  After a long climb I came to a precipice past which I could go no further.  Nor could I go back.

      As I studied my position I looked down this sheer precipice to the desert thousands of feet below.  There was snow all the way to the desert floor.  Down there, way down there, I could see the tiny ant-like people in the barren sands doing obeisance to the moutain which they apparently treated as a god.

      Looking down the sheer face of snow I could dimly perceive the outlines of a great face carved in the snow.  This god, then, retained all the water behind his visage that could make the desert bloom.  Just as I had used water to escape the prison of my subconscious I conceived the notion that I could release the water and make the desert bloom freeing the people from their bondage.

     Now, this was hard snow.  I had no trouble walking the surface without breaking through while if the snow didn’t give way as I jumped on it to destroy the snow god I would plummet several feet into the desert.  Neverthless I leaped up landing on my bottom.  The snow gave way as I rode the avalanche several thousand feet down the mountain side to land on the desert floor while I destroyed the god who had been impounding the water.

     Many streams now flowed out from the mountain.  The desert bloomed turning green and bursting with flowers.  Now that we have a comparison let us examine Burroughs’ great dream of Opar.

      Opar first found expression way back at the end of 1912 and the beginning of 1913.  Appearing at the end of The Return Of Tarzan the story was included in Burroughs’ fourth published story and fifth written story, the Outlaw Of Torn had been written but not published yet.

     As with Invincible the story of The Return was not the story.  The story was what Burroughs hung the details of what appeared to be the story on.  Hence Return was rejected by Metcalf Burroughs’ first editor at Munsey’s who undoubtedly couldn’t understand it.  This is the novel in which Tarzan makes his first raid on the fabulous treasure vaults of Opar.  Burroughs will continue his wonder stories of Opar through three more books.  Each return occurs at a crucial point in his life.

     That Opar is a dream location is proven by the topography of the location.  It is not too dissimilar to any dream.  The jungle grows right up to the base of towering mountains behind which Opar is hidden.  On the other side of these it is a dry dusty desert exemplifying Burroughs’ life as the twenty year desert in my dream did mine.  Entry into the valley in this story is through a narrow defile apparently several thousands of feet high above which the peaks of the surrounding mountain range tower several thousand feet more.   This entry also closely resembles that of Haggard in King Solomon’s Mines.  Haggard is never far from Burroughs’ mind as he writes his stuff.

     Working your way down into the dreamscape is considerably more easy than climbing it.  And then off in the distance rose the shining red and gold domes and turrets of Opar.  A dream city if there ever was one.   One is reminded of the two great literary and psychological influences on Burroughs, H. Rider Haggard and L. Frank Baum.  Of  Haggard’s work beyond King Solomon’s Mines I have Heart Of The World and People Of The Mist most readily called to mind.  It might be appropriate to mention that Freud also read some Haggard.  He specifically mentions Heart Of The World and She but I suspect he probably read others as well.  Opar might be a ruined version of Baum’s Emerald City of Oz.  Opar is red and gold while from a distance its ruination is not obvious.  Mine was a shining white mountain.  Burroughs probably tinkered with his to make a good story better.

     Now, the fabled Thebes of Greek mythology had seven gates.  Cities Of The Sun had up to a hundred.  Opar doesn’t have any.  The entrance is a narrow cleft in the wall on which on entering this narrow 20″ gap for which Tarzan had to turn his massively broad shoulders sideways and then immediatley climb a flight of ancient stairs.  This appears to be a reverse birth story in which Tarzan is reentering the womb, an impossible feat, but then, Tarzan goes where even devils fear to tread.  Try some of the books of the psychologist Stanislav Grof.  There’s definitely a sexual image that requires a little thought to understand.  Hmm.  No gates but a narrow cleft too narrow for the shoulders and a flight of steps leading back into the what, womb?  Whose cleft?  ERB mother’s, Emma’s, possibly Florence’s by this time, or that of his Anima figure?  Well, the last is waiting for him inside the domed inner chamber of this sacred city who is aptly named La, which is French for She.   ‘She’ was Ayesha the heroine of Haggard’s novel She.  I’m sure Burroughs is not writing consciously here.

     At this point Tarzan is accompanied by fifty of his brave and faithful but superstitious Waziri.  In fact, in this story as Tarzan goes through his incarnation of a Black savage he is Chief Waziri, eponymous head of the Waziri.  P. 42:

     As the ape man and his companions stood gazing in varying degrees of wonderment at this ancient city in the midst of savage Africa, several of them became aware of movement within the structure at which they were looking.  There was nothing tangible that the eye could grasp- only an uncanny suggestion of life where it seemed that there should be no life, for living things seemed out of place in this weird, dead city of the long dead past.

     Dead city of the long dead past.  That’s what dreams are all about, one’s own long dead past.  Thus the ridge separating the lush live jungle from this dry, dusty plain eight years wide was Burroughs own dead past.  I suggest the mountain range, perhaps sixteen thousand feet high, represented ERB’s confrontation with John the Bully when he was eight or nine.  On the jungle side was his early life as a Little Prince while on the dry dusty side was his blighted, blasted life after John.   Opar represents his ruined mind inhabited by the suggestion of life and the Queen of his dreams the beautiful High Priestess of the Flaming God, the woman of indescribable beauty, La of Opar.

     La is obviously a combination of Haggard’s She and L. Frank Baum’s Ozma Of Oz.

     Tarzan is seized by the Frightful Men, bound and gagged and left lying in a courtyard at high noon.  The rays of the Flaming God bear down on him.  Whether this is merely part of an ancient  Oparian religious rite or whether Tarzan becomes the chosen Son of theSun a god among men, isn’t clear to the reader.  The Oparians have their own ideas.

     Burroughs describes this rite in a really masterful way.  The maddened murderous Oparian who disturbs the ceremony just before Tarzan is to be sacrificed is nicely handled.  Believe me, I feel like I am there.  As La looks down on Tarzan’s form on the altar she recognizes the One, the Son of the Sun, the One for which she is destined.   Once again, Haggard’s She.

     Freed in the melee caused by the crazed Oparian Tarzan is taken down to the Chamber of the Dead by La where she hides him.  As she said nobody would look for him in the Chamber of the Dead.  This Chamber answers very well to the laundry room of my dream.  Tarzan/Burroughs is in a stone dungeon with walls fifteen feet thick, fourteen in Invincible, in total darkness while I was in a steel room with no exit but bright light.  These locations answer to the rigid confines of one’s owned damaged psyche.  There is no way out but there is, there has to be.  While palpating this stony prison at the back of the cell Tarzan discerns a flow of air coming through.  This scene is a replication of one in Haggard’s King Solomon’s Mines while becoming a B movie staple.  The big Bwana discovers some loose stones.  He is able to dislodge these creating an exit through the fifteen foot depth of stones of the fortress wall.  Somehow Burroughs has worked his psyche to give himself a chance.  Once beyond the foundation walls, free of the Chamber of the Dead (I once dreamed I was looking for my soul in the House of the Distraught) but act among the living, Tarzan feels his way down this long dark corridor.   One can’t be certain of ERB’s age when he achieved this escape.  As it takes place just before Tarzan marries Jane the time might have been 1898-99.  Perhaps when he was in the stationery business in Idaho.  Perhaps something he read acted as a lever.  Apart from Darwin’s Origin Of Species I would venture to say he read Eugene Sue’s Mysteries Of Paris a copy of which is in his library while traces of it are here in his earliest work.

     Sue’s rare mentality permeates every page of this first visit while Sue’s extraordinary consciousness is everywhere apparent throughout ERB’s entire corpus.  Burroughs himself is absolutely incredible in the manner he associates with numerous other writer’s intellects, seemingly simultaneously within a given passage or even sentence.  Myself, Adams, Hillman, Broadhurst, Burger and others have written extensively on these influences.  Hillman even goes so far as to virtually twin Burroughs with some of his major literary influences.  Burroughs does make all these writers his virtual doubles.

     I have stressed Sue’s influence in several earlier essays.  I can only urge you to read Sue’s Mysteries Of Paris- a big three-volume work and too short at that- which Burroughs in his own reading found a life changing experience.  Possibly he did read it in 1898-99.  I found it a life changing experience; I’ve never been able to free myself of its influence, while it appears that Burroughs couldn’t either.  A lot of the late nineteenth century writers make reference to Eugene Sue.  H.G. Wells based the beginning of an early novel on Sue.  The remnant remains only as a short story.

     Sue wrote from outside the bounds of sanity.  Privately I consider him insane but so brilliantly rational as to transcend the very meaning of insanity.  He’s a dangerous writer.  His last work was confiscated by the French authorities.  It undoubtedly had such a private personal sense of morality that I am sure it would have undone society much as the pornography from Hollywood has undone ours.  DeSade and Restif De La Bretonne, who in some ways Sue resembles, were mere unbalanced pornographers who disturb only the disturbed.  Sue’s vision of morality is coldly clear, it forms the basis of Tarzan’s but is always on the side of reason and virtue.  This fact makes it no less dangerous to a weak mind or that of the obsessive-compulsive Liberal.  Still, only the strong survive.  I heartily recommend you take your chance.

     Tarzan freed from the prison of the psyche, was he insane?  was I?  or were we merely trapped by a device of other’s making?  I can’t say but ERB’s sanity after he escaped was conditioned by that of Eugene Sue.  I, of course, rise above all influences.

     Progressing down the corridor Tarzan comes to the First Censor.  He finds a gap in the floor into which he might have fallen had he not been careful.  He would have fallen into the unknown but he would have been alright.  He would have fallen into water which in his condition would have been life-giving water rather than dangerous or perhaps he might have drowned in the waters of the subcoscious or Oblivion. 

     In high school I had a teacher who used to chalk a half dozen slogans on the black board, one each morning.  The only one I remember is ‘when you reach the end of your rope tie a knot and hang on.’  I did this for a couple decades then one day I let go.  The joke was on me.  There was nowhere to fall.  I was only a fraction of an inch from a solid surface.  However Tarzan culdn’t have known this since he didn’t fall in, this time.  He would three years later.

     By chance he looked up where he saw some light entering to discover he was at the edge of a well.  Yes, you see, the water of life.  He dimly descried the other side fifteen feet away which was child’s play for him to leap.  Thus he passed the First Censor.  Mine was at the elevators which I apparently merely disregarded.

     Continuing on for some time in total darkness, so far that he believes himself outside the walls of Opar he enters the treasure vaults.  These vaults are filled with what appears to be forty pound barbells of solid gold.  Now, this gold is old.  So old that no Oparian knows that it is there nor do any old legends even mention it.  This is an intriguing part.  The gold was mined millennia in the past after the sinking of Atlantis.   This raises the question of what did Burroughs know of Atlantis and did he believe in it?  I can’t answer the sources of the former but I’m betting on Ignatius Donnelly as one of them.  As to the latter I believe he did.  He mentions Atlantis in Invincible with a confidence and familiarity that convinces me that over the eighteen years since Return he has read and thought enough to convince himself of the reality of the lost continent.  He appears to accept a mid-Atlantic location.

     The gold represents the income he’s receiving for his stories.  The stories spring from his dead past.  That the vaults are outside Opar indicates he freed his mind from its prison or that the money comes from outside the prison, i.e. his publishers.  That the gold is Atlantean indicates that his stories are based on his own ancient experience.  In other words he is mining his past already completed as ingots or accomplished facts.

     What experience then catalyzed his ability to write?  I believe that from 1908-10 when he read L. Frank Baum’s Ozma of Oz, Dorothy And The Wizard Of Oz and The Emerald City Of Oz he found a means to express himself.  These books bypassed his last censor allowing him to write Minidoka.  That book was not suitable for publication but it freed his genius so that he immediately followed it with A Princess Of Mars.

     Now, outside the gates of the Emerald City/Opar in the midst of the equivalent of  Baum’s Great Sandy Desert he found the handle on his own destiny.

     Tarzan locates the fifty faithful but superstitious Waziri loading them up with two forty pound ingots each and points them toward the coast.

     At the same time Fifty Frightful Men from Opar who are tracking him discover Jane instead.  Dreamy enough for you?  Given a choice between Tarzan and Jane I’d take Jane and so did the Fifty Frightful Men.

     So now Jane’s on the altar under the sacrifical knife of La.  Skipping the irrelevant details La discovers Jane is Tarzan’s beloved.  Interesting confrontation between Tarzan/Burroughs real life woman and his Anima.  La is shattered as Tarzan rejects her for Jane.

     This is a key point in the oeuvre.  This is what makes the novels so repulsive to the literary mind.  The story is not the story; the issue is not the issue.  Opar is the story within the story that will be told in four short parts over eighteen years.  So we have part one here without any indication the story will be continued.  A segment of the story is just plopped down into The Return Of Tarzan, sort of irrelevantly.

     Weird style actually.  I’m not even sure it works, but it nevertheless must be effective else why would the stuff still be in print a century on.  You’re on your own, Jack, I can’t even attempt to solve that one.  Not today anyway.

     The next novel examining this psychological is the 5th novel of the oeuvre, Tarzan And The Jewels Of Opar of 1915.

     At this point Tarzan, a profligate if there ever was one, has run through the two tons of gold the fifty faithful Waziri brought out and is broke.  Two tons of gold in three years.  Think about it.  He needs to make another run on Opar.

     The character of the series changes with Jewels Of Opar from the character of the Russian Quartet, the first four novels.  They not only have an Oz influence but they become Ozlike.  Burroughs apparently drew on The Beasts Of Tarzan as the foundation for what is essentially a new series.

     After writing five Oz stories, in the sixth, The Emerald City Of Oz, Baum attempted to abandon the series.  He closed the series off with the news that there will be no more communication from the fairy kingdom.  Because Oz has been invaded three times now, what with the advent of airplanes that will be able to spot Oz from the air Ozma is making the kingdom invisible.  Is it coincidence that Opar disappears from the oeuvre after the third invasion?

     Baum’s Emerald City Of Oz appeared in 1910.  It was the last of the stories to be datelined Coronado in his prefaces.  When he was forced to begin writing Oz stories again in 1913 they were datelined Ozcot in Hollywood.  In 1910 Hollywood was just a pleasant Los Angeles suburb.  The movies didn’t begin to make Hollywood the center of the world porn industry until 1914.

     Whether Burroughs knew that Baum left Coronado in 1911 isn’t known but I find it signficant that when he went to California in 1913 his first choice of residence was Coronado where he perhaps thought he would be close to Baum who afer all had a close connection with Chicago.   Baum wasn’t in Coronado so Burroughs moved across the bay to San Diego.

     The question then is: did Burroughs make a pilgrimage to Ozcot to see Baum in 1913?  I have to believe he did.  Tarzan was one heck of an entree such that Baum could hardly refuse to see ERB.  How long or how often the men met then is conjectural but I think it was long enough for Baum to give Burroughs some tips on fantasy writing.  Already an ardent admirer of the Oz books Burroughs would have had no trouble accepting advice from this master.

     Thus when Burroughs returned to LA and Ozcot in 1916 it is certain that they met while they were probably already familiar with each other.  In 1919, when Burroughs moved to LA permanently, Baum was on his deathbed so there was no chance to renew the acquaintance.  I also believe that Baum’s Ozcot influenced Burroughs in naming his own estate Tarzana.

     In any event Tarzan returns to Opar in 1915.  Except for the first visit when Tarzan following the directions of the old Waziri, chief of the Waziri, visited Opar to take the gold, in the rest of the visits he is battling interlopers who wish to steal the gold from him.  It might  pay to look at the nature of the intrusions and the intruders.

     In 1911-12 Burroughs had for the first time in his life come into more money than he could spend, only for a brief moment of course.  Thus Tarzan removes the gold more on a whim not really knowing what to do with it.  One might think this a strange attitude for one who had tasted the night life of Paris; but a foolish conisistency is the bugbear of small minds as one of those venerated old timers once said.  I don’t wish to be thought of as small minded so we’ll let the observation pass.

     By 1915 having lost his two tons of gold in some bad investments Tarzan has better learned the value of money or, at least, the absence of it.  And so, perhaps, has Edgar Rice Burroughs.  One can see the ghost of old George T. shaking his head muttering:  ‘When will that boy ever learn?”  Well, George, it would take more time than allotted to him.

     After 1912 Burroughs had created something of value.  That value could be stolen or at least exploited.  In 1914 McClurg’s offered him a publishing contract.  Nicely crafted it gve all the advantages to McClurg’s and none to Burroughs.    Burroughs undoubtedly did not understand the legal implications of what he signed.  I can’t explain this but McClurg’s made no effort to merchandise a sure fire hit.  They didn’t even publish the full fifteen thousand copies called for in the contract.  They released the book to reprint publisher A.L.  Burt after p;rinting only ten thousand copies themselves.   Explain it how you will but there was a guaranteed huge absolutely visible market waiting for book publication.  Syndication in newspapers had guaranteed the book’s success.  So why did McClurg’s willfully refuse to take advantage of such a deal?

     Burroughs probably had stars in his eyes at the prospect of 10-15% royalties on hundreds of thousands if not millions of books.  Instead he got comparatively nothing.  The royalties from Burt were miniscule and to be shared 50/50 with McClurg’s.  You can imagine Burroughs’ disappointment as a golden future became brass before his eyes.

     Back to Opar.  Tarzan entered the vaults before his faithful Waziri who were warriors and would act as bearers for no other man.     Alone Tarzan made six trips from the vaults to the top of the tor bringing up forty-eight forty-pound ingots.  That’s 320 lbs. per carry for a total of 1920 lbs or nearly a ton.  According to Freud, and I believe him, all numbers are significant, although I don’t have enough information to delve completely into the meaning of these numbers.  The Waziri then brought up fifty-two ingots.  some two of the fifty got stuck with carrying two ingots or two went back for one more.  That made slightly over a standard of 2000 lbs.

     Tarzan’s forty-eight ingots are roughly half of the total that undoubtedly represents the fifty-fifty split with McClurg’s.  At the time Ogden McClurg, the son of the father who built the company, Alexander McClurg, was the nominal head of the company.  The firm was actually owned by the employees since about 1902, which Burroughs probably didn’t know.  The man he dealt with, Joseph Bray, was probably the real head of the company.  Actually Ogden was away from the company for long stretches on adventures in Central America and WWI so that he would have been unfamiliar with the day-to-day workings of the company.  Burroughs, however, formed a grudge against Ogden McClurg.  I suspect that the Belgian villain Albert Werper is based partly on Ogden McClurg while also being an alter ego of Burroughs.  So, a story behind the story is how Ogden McClurg stole ERB’s royalties.

     At the same time Tarzan spurns La for a second time so the Anima-Animus story of Tarzan, Jane and La continues.  La has Tarzan within her power but in the life and death situation love triumphs over her hurt so she spares the The Big Guy.  Not without consequences.  The Fifty Frightful Men, or what’s left of them after the maddened Tantor tramples a few, led by Cadj, who now makes his appearance, feel betrayed repudiating La.  Thus is begun the conspiracy to replace La which will be the focal point of the next two visits.  You know, love or hate, I don’t know which is to be feared the most.

     In the next visit in Tarzan And The Golden Lion Tarzan has gone through his second two tons of gold.  That is four tons of gold in roughly ten years plus the Jewels of Opar that our spendthrift hero has managed to go through.  Four tons of gold!  That’s 128,000 ounces of gold.  At today’s price of over a thousand dollars an ouce it works out to 128 billion dollars and change.  My friends, that is prodigality.  Good thing there was more where that came from, hey?

     Of course a lot of the loss came from loans to the British Empire to float the Great War.  But like certain other borrowings, to which Burroughs may be making an allusion, the Empire had no intention of repaying.

     Once again this sort of excess had brought Tarzan to the edge of bankruptcy not unlike ERB in 1922.  Just as creditors were besieging ERB for money so some private individuals led by a former employee, Flora Hawkes, attempt to extract the gold from Opar.  Tarzan first fails, then recovers not only the gold but the bag of diamonds.  The significance of the jewels is explained in the Tarzan and Esteban Miranda story contained in Tarzan And The Ant Men.  That story is a duplicate Jewels Of Opar with different details.  The history of the Jewels Of Opar also duplicates the history of Tarzan’s locket in Ant Men.  If you’ve found something good don’t hesitate to use it more than once.

     Fifteen years after the visit in Jewels Of Opar and eight years after the Golden Lion/Ant Men the scene returns to Opar, where once again others are to make a run on Tarzan’s private bank at Opar.  Apparently Tarzan has them baffled from the start as, although they know there are treasure vaults at Opar, they have no idea where they are.  It appears the Communists have read the earlier books, but not with close attention, nor did they bring their copies along with them to bone up during all those idle moments in camp.  Playing cards is alright after reading, but time better spent before.  You can see why these dodos failed.

     Burroughs had read his Oz stories.  One can’t be sure whether he ever reread the stories or whether he was working from twenty year old memories.  There are similarities here with the Emerald City Of Oz of 1910.  In that book Baum attempts to end the series.  He says that it will be the last communication from Oz.  It too involves an invasion of Oz by the Nome King and his horrid allies.  In Baum’s story Ozma refused to defend her Communist State, predating Russia by seven years, but arranges it so that the invaders who are tunneling beneath the Great Sandy Desert emerge in front of the fountain of the Waters of Oblivion.  The fountain has apparently been spiked with LSD as the drinkers get lost in a world of their own returning through the tunnel without a fight.  Perhaps the first military use of drugs in history.  An excellent fairy tale, hey?

      Burroughs’ Communists make two attempts to enter Opar.  Circling the city unable to find any gates to Burroughs dreamworld they do find the narrow cleft in the wall.  Spooky sounds and happenings disconcert the Blacks and Arabs of this multi-cultural coalition so that any concerted action is frustrated.  Although the Russians and the Mexican, Romero, enter, only Romero has the courage to penetrate beyond the courtyard.  The Russians are arrant cowards who flee at the sound of the first Oparian shriek.

     Returning to base camp they find that Wayne Colt, having tramped the breadth of Africa, has joined the group.

     A second attempt is made.  The superstitious Arabs refuse to return being also disgusted by Zveri’s lack of leadership and cowardice.  Taking the six Communists and the Blacks Zveri returns to Opar for a second attempt.  While absent from the base camp the coalition begins to come apart as the Arabs desert the cause, looting and burning the camp while taking the two White women with them.  La has joined Zora but more on that in the next section.

     The second expedition fares no better than the first for the same reasons.  On this attempt both Wayne Colt and Romero enter the sanctuary where they are engaged in a serious battle with the Frightful Men.  Colt is felled by a thrown bludgeon that knocks him down but doesn’t crush his skull.  Romero retreats, Colt is dropped unconscious before the high priestess, now Oah and Dooth.  Cadj was destroyed by Jad-Bal-Ja in Golden Lion so Dooth has taken his place.

     If La is the good mother aspect of the male psyche, Oah is the bad or wicked mother.  Still beautiful but not quite as much so as La. 

     She orders Colt taken to a dungeon to await the full moon or some other propitious moment to sacrifice him.

     Oah’s plans will be foiled because among those present is a nubile young maiden named Nao who falls head over heels for Wayne at first sight.  Burroughs describes Nao as having entered the first bloom of womanhood.  To me that represents a fourteen-year old girl.  Indeed, Nao is fresh as a flower.

     One remembers Uhha who accompanied Esteban Mirands in Ant Men was specifically mentioned as being fourteen.  So the ages fourteen, nineteen and twenty have special female connotations in Burroughs’ stories.  As Freud rightly says people should only be held responsible for their actions and not their thoughts.  Certainly there is no mention of Miranda having relations with Uhha while Nao had to be content with watching Colt disappear into the night after she released him from prison, murdering a man, be it noted, to do it.  All that Priestess sacrificial training with knives comes in handy.

     It will be remembered that ERB is said to have begun proposing to Emma when she was in the first bloom of womanhood at fourteen.  So it is probable that the memory is associated with Uhha and Nao.

     Colt as Burroughs alter ego thus allows Burroughs to visit Opar and have his fling with Nao as Colt while  Tarzan has his with La.  there’s a sort of joining of the two aspects of Burroughs’ Animus much as there was with Esteban Miranda and Tarzan in Golden Lion/Ant Men as well as Werper and Tarzan in Jewels Of Opar.

     Tarzan himself returns to Opar before the first expedition of the Communists.

     It has been eight years and four novels since Tarzan visited the fabled red and gold city of Burroughs’ dreams.  Tarzan has a number of misconceptions of his relationship with the Oparians.  The high priest Cadj who had become a problem in Jewels Of Opar was killed by Jad-Bal-Ja in Golden Lion.  La had been replaced on her throne with the Bolgani of the Valley of Diamonds as her body guard and the Gomangani, who had no thin veneer of civilization at all, as her slaves, I guess.  Tarzan then sees himself as an Oparian benefactor, not unlike the US in today’s Iraq, who will be received as a friend.  Our hero shows himself a poor psychologist.

     With a light springing step he turns sideways to enter the cleft, bounds up the stairs to enter the inner sanctum where the howling Frightful Men bash him over the head yet again.  Tarzan could have been tagged Skull Of Steel to survive all these bashings with very heavy clubs and grazing by full metal jacket bullets.  I tell you, man, I’d reather read of adventures like this than live them.

     Coming to, Tarzan is surprised to find Oah as High Priestess with Dooth as her High Priest.

     ‘Where is La?’  Tarzan asks.

     ‘Dead.’  Replies Oah.  ‘Throw him in the dungeon.’

     Back to the pits of Opar for the Big Bwana where one imagines his sensitive nostrils will be grossly offended.

     Once again Tarzan escapes his prison.  Seeking a way out he is spotted by some hairy bandy-legged men.  Fleeing down an endless corridor flanked by doors he chooses one and enters.  Whew!  What an aroma assails his sensitive nostrils.  He is face to face with a half starved lion.  The Big Guy hears the hairy men rushing down the corridor just as the lion springs.  The door opens inward, unlike most prisons but apparently commonly in dreamscapes, so Tarzan opens it and steps behind it.  As the lion springs past him he slams the door which was not too swift a move as the bar falls locking him in.  He has the comfort of hearing the lion tearing up the Frightful Men but the stench of the lion’s den for once is so powerful it disguises the aroma of a White woman at the back of the cell.  Surprise!  La isn’t dead she’s been palling around with this lion for a while.  Fortunately as in Ant Men there is a door between her inner cell and that of the lion that she can open.  They built prisons differently back then.

     So, the Animus and Anima are reunited but in prison once again.  As in all dream sequnces there is a way out.

     There’s a lot of shuffling about; this one is fairly complicated.  In order to bring food to La at the back of the cell it is necessary to first feed the lion.  There is a corridor across the front of the cell.  a barred gate separates it from the lion’s den while La’s cell with its unlocked door is at the back.  The corridor leads to a little chamber that is open from above.  The lion’s food is thrown down after the gate has been lifted and closed somehow.  While the lion is feeding in this corridor the attendant picks his way among the lion piles and puddles to take the food back to La.  The chow must be tasteless in this overpowering stench.

     Tarzan investigates then raising the gate for La when she advises him that the Oparians are coming back with the lion.  This is very fast work by the Oparians so you can see the stuff is dreamwork.  Tarzan raises La into the opening following her.

     They follow the winding staircase until they enter a chamber that is the highest point in Opar.  Thus they have ascended from the subconscious to the conscious.  Here La once again confesses her love for the Beast of Beasts.  The Big Guy is still not interested.

     As they are plotting a way to get down from the tower they hear someone ascending a ladder.  As the fellow pops his head above floor level Tarzan seizes the guy by the neck.  My first reaction was to think that this was the Old Stowaway from Tarzan And The Golden Lion who would now be sixty-eight.  Apparently not although Burroughs makes him sound different from one of the Frightful Men.

     The old boy assures Tarzan and La that he is faithful as he as wellas most of the Oparians pine for the return of La.  Plans are made for La to return to her throne.  The Old Boy was a master of deceit however.  Oah, Dooth and the Frightful Men who are still very angry with La and Tarzan are waiting for the pair when they enter from behind the curtain.  A little Wizard of Oz touch.  Humor, I think.

     Tarzan might well have voiced the words of Marty Robbins in El Paso:

Many thoughts ran through my mind

As I stood there.

I had but one chance

And that was to run.

     And run the Big Bwana did in a scene that was almost as comical as when he ran from the Alalus women in Tarzan And The Ant Men.

     Breaking through the ring of Frightful Men Tarzan tosses the slower La over a shoulder and rapidly puts one of his clean limbs before the other.  The bandy little legs of the Frightful Men are no match for the Big Bwana.  Shouting epithets like:  Good riddance of bad rubbish and Don’t come back again if you know what’s good for you. they snarlingly turned back to the City of Red and Gold.

     Far across the dusty plain Tarzan and La climbed the ridge separating Opar from the outside world.  First outside the gates of Opar in 1915s Jewels Of Opar chasing after Tarzan, once again in Tarzan And The Golden Lion to rescue Tarzan, La now makes her longest and most hazardous stay in the great wide world.

Part Seven follows.

 

 

 

Four Crucial Years

In The Life Of Edgar Rice Burroughs

Part II

by

R.E. Prindle

…presumptuous attempts to conquer the outer world of appearances by the inner world of wishful thinking.

–S. Freud, Letter To Arnold Zweig 5/8/32.

Quoted by Schur:  Freud: Living and Dying

     Now back in Chicago he had to consider what direction his life was to take.  At least secure working for his Dad, ERB made a tentative move in the direction of an artistic career.  During the summer he enrolled in the Chicago Art Institute.

     Chicago is billed as America’s Second City but in many ways it is or was, America’s First, certainly West of the Appalachians.  The city was much more important to the Southern States than New York City, while its importance to the West is shown by the fact that the Outfit- the Chicago Mafia- considers the whole West as its province.  The Outfit ruled everything west of the Appalachians by the end of the fifties

     At the time in question when Chicago’s population was a mill six the population of the country was about 75 million so Chicago represented over 2% of the total.  West of the towers rising from the mud there was virtually no one and those that existed were rubes and hicks or living on the reservation.  During Burroughs entire youth this most modern of American capitals stood a beacon of civilization, such as it was, on what was then known as the great American desert.

     Burroughs was to approach this metropolis from the West several times so is it any wonder that when John Carter emerged from the deserts of the Green Men- read Indians- the towers of Helium rose from nowhere much like Chicago.  The twin of Chicago was probably New York City in ERB’s mind.

     As the capital of the Empire, Helium, like Chicago, reflected the racial and ethnic makeup of Mars. 

     Chicago was polyglot and the mix was troubling.  Bruce Grant who wrote the history of the Union Club of Chicago entitled characteristically ‘Fight For A City’ in 1955 characterized the situation during Burroughs’ time in this manner, page 96:

     The thousands of laborers and adventurers who were attracted to Chicago during the rebuilding era following the fire of 1871 were for the most part uneducated newcomers.  Ignorant of the underlying spirit of American institutions.  Chicago was the Western distributing point for a vast European immigration.  With the good came the bad, and borne along with the stream were the scum and dregs of countries where despotism had made paupers and tyranny had bred conspirators.  From Russia came the Nihilists, described by one newspaper as ‘the gift of centuries of Slavic slavery and cruelty.’  From the German states came the Socialists, the offspring of military exactions and autocratic government.  And from Europe generally, including Great Britain and Ireland, Chicago drained the feverish spirit of human resentment against laws and life; of property and of conduct which it had no hand in making or enforcing.

     This was the environment Burroughs was growing up in.  I suppose he was getting his Russian and Jewish information from the newspapers.  Therefore it was heavily slanted in favor of the Jews.  But as he walked around Chicago he must have thought himself a Stranger In A Strange Land.  I do today.  No more than 10% of Chicago’s population could be considered native.  The city had a larger Irish population than Dublin, was the most populous German city in the world, The Polish population could compete with Warsaw and on down the line.

     The Socialists paraded shouting and screaming Revolution under the Red banner which may have made sense in Germany but made no sense to the native born.  Anarchists unfurled the Black Flag with their preposterous social conceptions.

     The remarkable thing about America is the extent that the Anglos went to accommodate the immigrants.  Of course there were movements such as the APA- American Protective Association- and later the Ku Klux Klan, but these were scorned and ineffective in any event, regardless of how seriously some paranoid immigrant writers like Gustavus Myers might take them.

     Then as now Liberals controlled the country.  More typical of the reaction was this querulous little poem gleaned from the pages of ‘Chicago’s Public Wits:  a Chapter In The American Comic Spirit,’ Edited by Kenny J. Williams and Bernard Duffy.  LSU Press, 1983:

I Wish I Was A Foreigner

by

An American

I wish I was a foreigner, I really, really do.

A right down foreign foreigner; pure foreigner through and through;

Because I find Americans, with all of native worth,

Don’t stand one half the chances here with men of foreign birth.

It seems to be unpopular for us to hold a place,

For we are made to give it up to men of foreign race.

The question of necessity and fitness to possess

Must never be considered- who cares for our distress.

Perhaps it is not wicked to be of foreign birth,

Or to mutter a mild protest when an alien wants the earth;

But the latest importation is sure to strike a job,

And be the sooner qualified to strike and lead a mob.

A Dutchman (German) or an Irishman, a Frenchman or a Turk

Comes here to be a voter, and is always given work;

A native born American is here, and here he must stay;

So it matters little how he lives, he cannot get away.

The Spaniard and Bohemian, the Russian and the Pole,

Are looking toward America with longings in the soul,

Because the politicians will receive them with open arms,

And the goddess of our freedom bid them welcome to her charms.

But the law abiding Chinaman from the Celestial shore,

Because he has no franchise, is driven from our shore;

Americans and Chinamen are not in much demand,

The one remains neglected while the other is barred the land.

So I wish I was a Dutchman, or some other foreign cuss

I’d lord it over the natives- who don’t dare to make a fuss,

But my blushes tell the story, I am native to the soil’

So the aliens hold the places- visitors must never toil.

     With the real American response as above, the retiring Bill Moyer doesn’t have to worry much about ‘the thunder on the Right’ caused by a few radio announcers.  The real threat to them is that the Liberal ideology will be shown to be false and ridiculous not that the ‘danger from the Right’ is pernicious.

     One believes that if Burroughs were alive today Rush Limbaugh and Bill O’Reilly would find him an ardent supporter. One wouldn’t want to be called ‘an unapologetic Conservative.’  The Liberal oppression is that strong.

     The resignation is fairly bitter in the above poem.  The Chinese, the only nationality  ever excluded, had been denied entry in 1882, which was shortly before the above poem was written; thus the writer laments that ‘Americans and Chinamen are not in much demand’ comparing natives with the excluded Chinese.

     By the nineties the Irish had seized control of many municipal administrations, including Chicago’s, so that they were in control of political patronage.  The boodle as it was known.  All the sinecures, city and county, were theirs to distribute to friends and cronies.  The Irish effectively controlled Chicago.  As the poem indicates this privilege was obtained by the vote and votes were obtained by corruption thus the Irish and the Democrats, then as today, were the party of corruption.  All Irish city administrations were corrupt.

     The failure of the potato, of course, sent the Irish fleeing Ireland for more emerald pastures, but the Scottish emigration to the US and Canada  caused by the Highland Clearances  is virtually unknown.  There were two clearances, one in the eighteenth century which sent the Highlanders to the colonies or US and second , 1800-1860 which populated Canada.

      After the Union when the Scottish Lairds no longer had need of armed retainers they simply cleared the natives off the land in about as brutal a manner as the Americans cleared the Indians to make room for sheep.  All these people who had lived in the highlands for centuries discovered they were mere squatters on land which legally belonged to the Laird.  Past services were forgotten; they were literally thrown off the land.  How do you like that?  Matches any hardluck story you’ve ever heard, doesn’t it?

     The Lairds then invoked the law to kick their former retainers not only off the land but out of the country.  Dig that, and take heed for the future.  Sheriffs burned down their houses around their ears.  There was then no place for them in their homeland.  They were ordered to emigrate.  What was that Walter Scott said:

Breathes there a man

With Soul so dead,

Who to himself hath not said,

This is my home,

My native land…

     Well, with a mere change of place you can that about Canada, too.  That’s how the Scots came to the US and Canada.

     The Irish supremacy in the US lasted until the thirties when the massive immigration of the nineties through 1914 wrested power from them.  Fiorello LaGuardia, the Jewish-Italian politician, replaced Jimmy Walker in New york ending the long Celtic rule of that city.  James T. O’Farrell in his Studs Lonigan trilogy has the Irish lamenting that the Slavs are swamping the Irish causing them to lose control of the boodle.  The Irish of Chicago must have rallied because Mayor Daley put the Irish back on top but because of the huge Negro influx into Chicago the Irish have to share power with the Blacks.

     If one makes an analogy of the present with the past it won’t be long before Mexicans and Moslems are directing the affairs of municipalities and States.  A vote is a vote.

     Be that as it may, in 1897 I believe ERB would have been in sympathy with the author of I Wish I Was A Foreigner.  The Irish certainly figure largely in both his personal and political images of the time.  David Adams writing in the ERBzine has come up with several possible origins for the name of the Mahars of Pellucidar.  I think the most obvious is that the Mahars are intended to be a parody of the Irish administration of Chicago.  Mahar is an Irish name.

     Earlier in the century the city of Chicago which was built on slightly different gradients so that sidewalks had a lot of up and down stairs had been literally jacked up to one level making the sidewalks even.  Entire huge buildings and city blocks were raised several feet above ground to make a level city.  The resulting cavity produced an underground city which the indigent occupied.

     This might suggest the image of the occupants as slimy reptiles into an imaginative mind.  Putting the images together one comes up with an Irish administration of slimy reptiles.  I haven’t figured out why they’re deaf and female yet unless ERB was unhappy with Emma who may have been deaf to his entreaties.  For the present I’ll leave that one up to you.

2.

     I shall permit myself to send you a small book which is sure to be unknown to you.  Group Psychoogy And The Analysis Of The Ego, published in 1921.  Not that I consider this work to be particularly successful, but it shows a way from the analysis of the individual to an understanding of society. 

S. Freud to Romain Rolland.

Quoted by Max Schur: Freud Living And Dying

     Working at the Battery Company, starting from the ground up, his father must still have allowed ERB flexible hours because Our Man found time to attend classes at the Chicago Art Institute.  He was not a very cooperative student, refusing to accept any discipline.  According to Porges he only wanted to draw horses and that without acquiring the fundamentals of drawing.  As he couldn’t find anyone willing to drop some hints on the fine points of equine deliniation he lost interest dropping out of school

     I for one would be very much interested in learning exaclty how he passed his time during this halcyon period.  If he and Emma went to the theatre as Porges suggests I would like to know what shows or lecture they attended.  Lecturers were a much more important adjunct to entertainment than they are today.  Robert Ingersoll had a huge reputation and of course Mark Twain.  There was also the Chautauqua Circuit.

     In the much discussed issue of Theosophy in Burroughs’ life it is quite possible that he attended a lecture or series of lectures either in their own building or some other place.  There undoubtedly would have been reviews of lecture in the papers.  Chicago had at least a dozen, in which the tenets or beliefs would be discussed.  In the crowd in which Burroughs associated I’m sure the fairly amazing doctrines would be discussed.

     When the US government places its 30 million pages of newspapers on the internet by 2006 dating back to the earlyh nineteenth century we will be able to examine this pertinent period in detail.

     At the theatre he and Emma would most likely have seen an actor by the name of John McCulloch who was a fixture of the Chicago stage.  This would have struck ERB as quite a coincidence as his mother had a John McCulloch as an ancestor.  If I am right in my surmise John the Bully was surnamed McCulloch.

     Nor would this be such a far fetched coincidence.  There must have been a couple dozen John McCullochs in Chicago at the time, probably hundreds in the United States.  As I write, my phone book lists a half dozen John McCullochs in this area.

     If Emma introduced ERB to the theatre at this time, there seem to be no reference3s to the theatre earlier, it held an attraction for him he never lost.  The old actor in Marcia Of The Doorstep is probably based on John McCulloch while ERB wrote his play You Lucky Girl at about the same time for his daughter Joan.

     Then at the beginning of the thirties ERB wrote his novelette Pirate Blood using the pseudonym John T. McCulloch which united the McCulloch references in his life.  It is said that ERB capitalized too much in his writing on improbable coincidences which on the one hand may be true but on the other, life is just like that, isn’t it?

     A near contermporary of ERB, Vachel Lindsay, who was born in 1879 in Springfield, Illinois, catalogs the influences to which he and his generation were subject.  It might not hurt to look through the poem here to try to capture some of the essence of what it meant to be young during this period.  The piece is entitled: John L. Sullivan, The Strong Boy Of Boston.

      The poem may be especially relevant to Burroughs as it centers on boxing which was a special interest of his.  During the period from 1892 to 1897 Burroughs’ idol, Gentleman Jim Corbett, was the heavyweight champion.  Corbett had defeated the incredible hulk, John L. Sullivan, in 1892 by landing one on the solar plexus making that piece of anatomy a topic of conversation down to when I was a kid.   In 1897 Bob Fitzsimmons took the title from Corbett.

     In the poem, Lindsay lists the many influences on his young life centered around 1889.  Pervading and overriding all is the ominous figure of Sullivan and the Irish.  Both Lindsay and Burroughs were Anglos.  The refrain ‘East side, West side’ refers to the Irish domination of New York City while the capitalized LONDON BRIDGE IS FALLING DOWN  of the last stanza implies that the Irish were conquering the Anglos.

When I was nine years old in 1889,

I sent my love a lacy valentine.

Suffering boys were dressed like Fauntleroys,

While Puck and Judge in quiet humor vied.

The Gibson Girl came shining like a bride

To spoil Tennyson’s Elaine.

Louisa Alcott was my gentle guide….

Then…

I heard a battle trumpet sound.

Nigh New Orleans

Upon an emerald plain

John L. Sullivan

The strong boy

of Boston

Fought seventy-five red round with Jake Kilrain.

In simple sheltered 1889

Nick Carter I would piously deride.

Over the Elsie books I moped and sighed.

St. Nicholas magazine was all my pride;

While coarser boys on cellar doors would slide.

The grownups bought refinement by the pound.

Rogers groups had not been told to hide.

E.P. Roe had just begun to wane.

Howells was rising, surely to attain!

The nation for a jamboree was gowned.

The hundreth year of roaring freedom crowned.

The British Lion ran and hid from Blaine

The razzle-dazzle hip-hoorah from Maine.

The mocking bird was singing in the lane….

Yet…

“East side, west side, all around the town the tots sang: ‘Ring a rosie-

‘London Bridge is falling down.’

And…

John L. Sullivan

The strong boy

Of Boston

Broke every single rib of Jake Kilrain.

In dear provincial 1889

Barnum’s bears and tigers could astound

Ingersoll was called a most vile hound,

And named with Satan, Judas, Thomas Paine!

Phillips Brooks for heresy was fried.

Boston Brahmins patronized Mark Twain.

The baseball rules were changed.  That was a gain!

Pop Anson was our darling pet and pride.

Native sons in Irish votes were drowned.

Tammany once more escaped it chain.

Once more each raw slaoon was raising Cain.

The mocking bird was singing in the lane….

Yet…

“East side, west side, all around the town

The tots sang:  ‘Ring a rosie’

‘London Bridge is falling down.'”

And…

John L. Sullivan

The strong boy

Of Boston

Finished the ring career of Jake Kilrain.

In mystic, ancient 1889

Wilson with pure learning was allied.

Roosevelt gave forth a chriping sound.

Stanley found old Emin and and his train.

Stout explorers sought the pole in vain.

To dream of flying proved a man insane.

The newly rich were bathing in champagne.

Van Bibber Davis, at a single bound

Displayed himself and a simpering glory found.

John J. Ingalls, like a lonely crane

Swore and swore and stalked the Kansas plain.

The Cronin murder was the ages’ stain.

Johnstown was flooded, and the whole world cried.

We heard  of Louvain and Lorraine,

Of a million heroes for their freedom slain.

Of Armageddon and the world’s birth-pain,

The League of nations, the new world allied,

With Wilson crucified, then justified.

We thought the world would loaf and sprawl and mosey,

The gods of Yap and Swat were sweetly dozy,

We thought the far off gods of Chow had died.

The mocking bird was singing in the lane….

Yet…

“East side, west side, all around the town

the tots sang: ‘Ring a rosie’

‘LONDON BRIDGE IS FALLING DOWN.'”

And…

John L. Sullivan knocked out Jake Kilrain.

     So many of the references which had an influence on Vachel Lindsay have lost their relevance but there are two which are important for our story.  One is that:  The Gibson Girl came shining like a bride to spoil the cult of Tennyson’s Elaine.  Elaine came from Tennyson’s Arthurian poem ‘Idylls Of The King.’  She was sort of pale and wan.  The Gibson Girl was created by the illustrator, Charles Gibson.  The latter girl was a robust saucy temptation of the All American Girl.  Emma made the choice between the two the Gibson Girl  her role model which is why I find her so entrancing.  In that sense Emma was forward looking heading into the twentieth century.  The Gibson Girl may be said to epitomize the woman of the myth of the twentieth century.  From the Gibson Girl the ideal  progressed to the Vargas pinup girl of the heyday of Esquire Magazine and from there she degenerated to the sex fantasies of Hugh Hefner and on down to Larry Flynt’s Hustler.  The story could have had a happy ending but didn’t.  It’s gotten worse.  I don’t want to go into that.

     The second key point is the general regretful tone concerning the Irish.  Just as in the poem I Wish I Was A Foreigner where the American complains …’the foreigner comes here to be a voter,’ so Lindsay notes ‘Native sons in Irish votes were drowned.’  This is serious.  This was a major problem with the ‘democracy’ when its intended fairness was turned against itself.  In a homogeneous society votes are used to determine an issue regarding the welfare of the whole people.  In a heterogeneous society votes are used to advance the interests of one segment against the others.  Thus the whole democratic process is subverted.

     Thus while the Anglos were concerned with regulating the country and immigration for the benefit of all, the Irish put themselves forward as the benefactors of the immigrants against the Anglos taking moral shortcuts which undermined the integrity of the State.  Immigrants then were brought in on the Irish side condemning the Anglos who were their true benefactors.

     Hence the baffling undercurrent of condemnation and complaint that runs thorugh American historical writing.

     Vachel Lindsay would also run afoul of the Diversity with his poem of the Congo which the Left portrayed as anti-Negro while it merely was an expression of Lindsay’s understanding of the culture of the Negro Group within the Diversity.  The Negro deserves to have his own psychology and he does.  We should value and honor that.

     Such censoring of opinion will have its consequences.  Burroughs himself was and is charged with racism merely for having prescient views.  The man was a deep thinker.  Viewing the world around him at this time he came to a remarkably accurate conclusion.  I can’t tell what his thought processes were but analyzing history he came to this conclusion.

     In his prophetic futuristic novel ‘Beyond Thirty’ of 1915, just after the Great War began, he has a post-war Europe ruled, as I thought improbably by Black Africans.  In light of recent events this now seems not so improbable.

     Life is not what we would have it:  The world is not run on any principles we can cheerfully accept.  The twentieth century was one of unprecedented disasters in their scope.  Shiva and Kali rule whether we will or not.  The twenty-first century will be even more destructive.  Now, beginning in the fifteenth century Europe, in essence, began the invasion of the world.  Scientifically far in advance of the rest of the world its success was dazzling.  However, somewhere in these years, we are considering, perhaps specifically 1893, the Euroamericans, the West, lost its will to dominate.  This lack of will was presciently picked up by a number of writers including Burroughs.

     The way of the world is that one either conquers or one is conquered.  Having begun to impose its will on the world there was no turning back for the West.  However it has attempted to do so.  The result is that instead of invading and conquering the West is now being invaded and conquered.

     Any Freudian analysis of the ego of the various peoples or, Groups, will provide a record of their mental processes, objectives and desires, not mention, capabilities.  The myth of the twentieth century was destroyed on 9/11/01 when the Moslems destroyed the religious symbol of the World Trade Center.

     The West at the height of their confidence moved peoples about the world to satisfy their needs.  East Indians were taken to all corners of the world while Chinese were moved into areas in the Pacific where their skills were in advance of the native populations.  During the two wars Africans were recruited to fight from Europe to the Far East.  A great deal of the consequences have been suppressed.  Having set the peoples of the world in motion, the West withdrew from its conquests, the conquered peoples began to assert their Group egos realizing that it was either conquer or be destroyed.  Then they began their invasions.

     The Japanese attempt to expel the West from Asia was successful although costly for themselves.  Nevertheless by the 50s the West had been expelled from Asia while the enclave in Hong Kong was allowed to live out the terms of their lease.

     By the early sixtes the Africans had expelled the West except in South Africa.  that fearful drama is not yet finished.

     Africans had been dispersed throughout the Americas during gthe 16th through 19th centuries.  Beginning recently they have begun to invade Europe from the North African ports especially from Libya.

     At the same time the world’s population has grown so large that there are areas that can no longer support their populations.  Whether by design or natural increase the Semitic States were so productive that they began exporting people throughout th world  beginning in the seventies while their populations at home continue to grow.

     As the Moslems invaded the world in this second Eruption From The Desert this narrow, bigoted, antiquated religious faith came into conflict with Western Scientific knowledge.

     To accept scientific knowledge would destroy the Moslem faith in much the same way that the Christian and Jewish faiths in the West have been affected.  There can be no compromise between the two; this is an either-or situation.

     While Moslem proselytizing has never ceased since the seventh century there was now a renewed burst of activity combined with an all out assault on the West, well conducted within Moslem military limitations.

     On 9/11/01 they were successful in destroying the symbol of scientific achievement, the World Trade Center in New York City.  They aimed directly at the strength of the West- its economic system.

     It is a mistake to think that anything can be achieved by fair minded discussion or concessions, otherwise known as appeasement.   Appeasement didn’t work out so well in the thirties when another determined ideology asserted its will.  This is a war to the knife; only one side will be left standing.

     More remarkable still, having disturbed the Africans in their nest, the Africans are on the move having begun an invsion of Euorpe which is already over populated there being no room for vast numbers of either Africans or Moslems, unless….  Religious and racial intolerance began to take a vicious turn in the twentieth centgury when racial clashes began almost simultaneoulsy in Europe and Asia.

     Since then genocidal wars of either a racial or religious nature have proliferated.  The Moslems have opened a guerilla war on the world.  In areas where resources are insufficient to support an Arab or Semitic population against other races the Semites or Arabs are conducting genocidal wars as in the Sudan where they are wiping out the Negroes or driving them beyond the borders.

     As Moslems and Negroes flood into Europe this must result in a terrific struggle for survival of the Europeans, probably breaking out within the next ten or twenty years.

     The resultant war must be genocidal in nature.  If the European struggle is successful it must result in the death of alien populations or their being driven out of Europe the same as the long struggle to drive the Moslems out of Spain.  Or the Europeans will be annihilated.

     This is an unpleasant but inevitable prospect.

     If the Europeans fail as I am sure they will then Burroughs remarkable prophecy of a Black Europe in ‘Beyond Thirty’ is almost certain to become a reality.  Life does not give you any easy choices.  Here in America you’re not even supposed to talk about this problem in a realistic manner so  there is no hope of avoiding destruction.

     ERB’s head must have been aswirl with all these thoughts that society forbade him to express directly.

     Probably wrestling with all these macro thoughts he had the really important micro thoughts to deal with.  Really, what to do with Emma who he wanted but didn’t want to marry, while still not losing her to Frank Martin.

     In February of  ’98 he once again for some reason decided to seek an officer’s appointment.  He wrote to a former commandant at the MMA, Capt. Fred A. Smith, seeking his assistance.  Smith, of course, replied that there was nothing he could do.  ERB still didn’t understand the consequences of abandoning his post in 1896.

     Shortly thereafter ERB pulled up stakes to return to Idaho abruptly abandoning Emma again.  Why he should have done so is not clear although perhaps there is a clue in the Return Of Tarzan.  Remember that dream displacement and disfiguration are in operation so that one cannot expect a literal representation of the incident.  One has to demythologize it.l  In the Return W.C. Clayton, Tarzan’s rival for Jane, and Jane have been stranded in the jungle. 

      Tarzan has chanced upon their camp.  As he watched an aged, toothless lion was about to spring on a cringing W.E. Clayton as Jane watches.  Tarzan transfixes the lion with his spear.  He then sees Clayton get up to embrace and kiss Jane.  Mistaking the import of the embrace and kiss, Tarzan turns sorowfully back to disappear into the jungle.

     Burroughs himself may have seen Frank Martin kissing Emma.  Perhaps he thought that a pauper like himself had lost out to a prince like Martin.  Thinking himself cut out might have been the reason for his departure to Idaho much as Tarzan melted back into the jungle..  With no more thought for his Dad at the Battery Company than he had for Col. Rogers at the MMA ERB just up and left.  Poor old Emma must have been wondering what she had done.  Couldn’t have been anything she said.

Continue to Part III.

 

Themes And Variations

The Tarzan Novels Of Edgar Rice Burroughs

#5  Tarzan And The Jewels Of Opar

by

R.E. Prindle

Edgar Rice Burroughs

Edgar Rice Burroughs

Part IV

From Achmet Zek’s Camp To The Recovery Of The Jewels

     The nature of the story changes from the departure of Werper and Jane from Achmet Zek’s camp .  To that point the story had been developed in a linear fashion.  From Zek’s camp on ERB either loses control of his story or changes into an aggregation of scenes between the camp and the Estate leading to the return.  Perhaps there is a modification in his psychology.

     The struggle for the possession of the jewels and the woman contunues unabated.  As always Burroughs tries to construct a story of many surprising twists and turns.  This may be an influence of the detective story, Holmes, on him.  He may be trying to emulate Doyle.

     The problem of who the characters represent in ERB’s life becomes more difficult to determine.  Werper continues as ERB’s failed self.  I think as relates to Zek and the jewels Zek represents Burroughs’ old sexual competitor, Frank Martin, while Zek, the gold and the Abyssinians represent the deal between McClurg’s  and its deal in 1914-15 with A. L. Burt.  Burt first had the reprint rights to Tarzan Of The Apes, published in the summer of 1914.  Those rights shortly passed to Grossett and Dunlap.

     In my estimation Martin never ceased interfering with Burroughs’ marriage at least from 1900 to 1919 when Burroughs fled Chicago.  We know that Martin tried to murder Burroughs in 1899 and that his pal, R.S. Patchin, looked up Burroughs in LA after the divorce in 1934 and sent a mocking condolence letter in 1950 when Burroughs died and after Martin had died sometime earlier.  Patchin would obviously have been directed by Martin to taunt Burroughs in ’34.  It’s clear then that Martin carried a lifelong grudge against Burroughs because of Emma.

     Martin is thus portrayed as being in competition with Burroughs in 1914-15 and possibly but probably to a lesser extent in LA.

     Jane is shown being captured by Zek twice in the story.  Thus Emma was courted or captured by Martin when Burroughs was in Arizona and Idaho.  In this story Jane is captured while Tarzan is absent in Opar.  The second capture or courting by Martin is diffiicult to pinpoint by the inadequate information at our disposal but following the slender lead offered by the novelist, John Dos Passos, in his novel The Big Money I would think it might be in 1908 when ERB left town for a few weeks or months probably with Dr. Stace.  It was of that time that the FDA (Federal Food And Drug Administration) was after Stace for peddling his patent medicines.  Burroughs was probably more deeply involved with that than is commonly thought.  At any rate his being out of town would have provided an opportunity for Martin.  Whether something more current was going on I don’t find improbable but I can’t say.

     I would also be interested to learn whether there was any connection between McClurg’s and Martin.  Martin was Irish, his father being a railroad executive which explains the private rail car at his disposal, as were, of course, the McClurgs and so was the chief executive Joe Bray.  If Martin knew Bray he might have pressured Bray to reject publication of Tarzan doing a quick turnaround when interest was shown by the Cincinatti firm.  Martin then might have meddled with Burroughs’ contract with McClurg’s.  The contract and McClurg’s attitude is difficult to understand otherwise.

     The gold is buried which Zek is supposed to have gotten through Werper, then they have a falling out and Werper is captured by Mourak and his Abyssinians.  Mourak would then represent A.L. Burt and a division of the the royalties.  If McClurg’s had promoted Tarzan Of The Apes, which they didn’t, Burroughs would have received 10% of 1.30 per copy.  Thus at even 100,000 or 200,000 copies he would have received 13,000 or 26.000 dollars.  that would have been a good downpayment on his  yacht.  Martin who must have thought of Burroughs as a hard core loser from his early life would have been incensed by such good fortune that might have placed Burroughs’ income well above his own.

      Instead, it doesn’t appear that McClurg’s even printed the whole first edition of 15,000 copies.  The book immediately went to A.L. Burt where the price of the book was reduced to 75 or 50 cents with the royalty much reduced to 4 1/2 cents divided fifty-fifty between McClurg’s and Burroughs.  It’s hard to believe that ERB wasn’t robbed as he certainly thought he had been.  Thus when Mourak unearths the gold he is settling for a portion of the hoard when Zek’s men show up and the battle necessary for the story begins.

     In this manner the key issues of gold, jewels and woman are resolved.

     So, Werper with the jewels goes in search of Jane to find that she has already fled Zek’s camp.  The scenes of the story now take place between the camp, perhaps representing McClurg’s offices and the Estate, representing Burroughs.

      The latter half of the book, pages 81-158 in the Ballantine paperback is very condensed in a dream like fashion.  The action within the very prescribed area with a multitude of people and incidents is impossible except as a dream story.  The appearance of the Belgian officer and askaris must have been photoshopped it is so impossible.  In other words, then, the whole last half of the book, if not the whole book, is a dream sequence in which dream logic prevails.  I will make an attempt to go into late nineteenth century dream speculation in Part V.

     A key point of the story is the regaining of the memory of Tarzan.  This occurs near story’s end on page 139 and following.  It’s fairly elaborate.  In connection with his memory return I would like to point out the manner of his killing the lion when he rescues Jane from Mourak’s boma.  The roof fell on Tarzan in imitation of his braining in Toronto  while now he picks up a rifle swinging on the rearing lion’s head splintering the stock along with the lion’s skull so that splinters of bone and wood penetrate the brain while the barrel is bent into a V.  Rather graphic implying a need for vengeance.  Not content with having the roof fall on Tarzan’s head, while trying to escape the Belgian officer an askari lays him out with a crack to the back of the head but ‘he was unhurt.’  One can understand how Raymond Chandler marveled.  My head hurts from writing about it.  Also Chulk has his head creased by a bullet adding another skull crusher to the story.

     The description of the return of Tarzan’s reason seems to fit exactly with Burroughs’  injury.  I would have to question whether Burroughs himself didn’t have periods of amnesia.  P. 139:

     Vaguely the memory of his apish childhood passed slowly in review- then came a strangely tangled mass of faces, figures and events that seemed to have no relation to Tarzan of the Apes, and yet which were, even in this fragmentary form, familiar.

     Slowly and painfully recollection was attempting to reassert itself, the hurt brain was mending, as the course of its recent failure to function was being slowly absorbed or removed by the healing process of perfect circulation.

     According to medical knowledge of his time the description seems to apply to his own injury.  His own blood clot had either just dissolved or was dissolving.  Then he says almost in the same manner as in The Girl From Farriss’s:

     The people who now passed before his mind’s eye for the first time in weeks were familiar faces; but yet he could neither place them in niches they had once filled in his past life nor call them by name.

In this hazy condition he goes off in search of the She he can’t remember clearly.  His memory fully returns as he has Werper by the throat who calls him Lord Greystoke.  That and the name John Clayton bring Tarzan fully back to himself.  For only a few pages at the end of the book does he have his memory fully recovered.

In order to summarize the rest I have had to outline the actions of the main characters for as with Tarzan and his memory the story is one of ‘a strangely tangled mass of faces, figures and events.’  Whether this is artistry on Burroughs’ part or a dream presentation I am unable to ascertain for certain.    Let’s call it artistry.

We will begin with Werper’s activities.  While Tarzan promised to retrieve La’s sacred knife Werper appears to no longer have it as it disappears from the story.  When Werper escaped from Zek unable to locate Jane he heads East into British territory.  He is apprehended by one of Zek’s trackers.  On the way back a lion attacks the Arab unhorsing him.  Werper mounts the horse riding away directly into the Abyssinian camp of Mourak.  Mugambi is captured at the same time.  While the troop bathes in a river Mugambi discovers the gems managing to exchange them for river pebbles.  Werper tempts Mourak with the story of  Tarzan’s gold.  While digging the gold they are attacked by Zek and his men.  Werper rides off as Mourak is getting the worst of the fight.  Zek rides after him.  Werper’s horse trips and is too exhausted to rise.  Using a device that ERB uses in one of his western novels Werper shoots the horse of the following Zek, crouching behind his own for cover.  Zek has lost the woman but now wants the jewels.  Werper hasn’t the woman  while unknown to himself he neither has the jewels.  In exchange for his life he offers Zek the pouch of river stones believing it contained the jewels.  Zek accepts.  Both men are treacherous.  Werper waits to shoot Zek but Zek out foxes him picking up the bag by the drawstring with his rifle barrel from the security of the brush.

Discovering the pebbles he thinks Werper has purposely deceived him stalking down the trail to finish him off.  Werper is waiting and pots him with his last shell.  As Zek falls the woman, Jane, appears as if by a miracle reuniting the two.  Could happen I suppose but definitely in dreams.

So, what are the two men fighting over?  The sex interest, as the jewels are involved.  Who do Werper and Zek represent?  Obviously Burroughs and Martin.  The stones are false but as Werper disposes of Zek in the competition for the woman Jane appears as if by magic to run to Werper/ Burroughs with open arms.

Werper with Jane returns to Zek’s camp now under the direction of Zek’s lieutenant, Mohammed Beyd.  Rigamarole, then Werper deposits Jane in a tree from whence he expects to retrieve her on the following morning.  The next day she is gone.

Werper once again turns East.  He is spotted riding along by Tarzan.    The Big Guy falls from a tree throwing Werper to the ground demanding to know where his pretty pebbles are.  It is at this point Werper recalls Tarzan to his memory by calling him Lord Greystoke.  Also at the moment the Belgian officer appears from nowhere, having miraculously ascertained Werper’s whereabouts, to arrest him.

Tarzan wants Werper more than the Belgian so tucking his man under his arm he breaks through the circle of askaris.  On the point of success he is brought down from behind.  Another thwack on the head.  Apparently in a desperate situation Tarzan hears voices from the bush.  The Great Apes have their own story line but here it is necessary to introduce them as Tarzan’s saviors.  The voice is from Chulk who Tarzan sends after the troop.  They attack routing the Africans.  In the process Chulk, who is carrying the bound Werper is shot.  If you remember Chulk stole the stones from Mugambi, or maybe I haven’t mentioned that yet.  Werper falls across him in such a way that his hands bound behind his back come into contact with the pouch.  Werper quickly recognizes what the bag contains although he has no idea how the ape came by them.

He then advises Tarzan where he left Jane.  The two set out when the furore in Mourak’s camp reaches his ears.  ‘Jane might be involved.’  Says Werper.  ‘She might.’  says Tarzan telling Werper to wait for him while he checks.

Werper waits not, disappearing into the jungle where his fate awaits him.

Those are the adventures of only one character in this swirling vortex of seventy some pages.

Let’s take Mugambi next as he is the key to the story of the jewels yet plays a minor role.  After crawling after Jane and regaining his strength he arrives at Zek’s camp at the same time as Tarzan and Basuli but none are aware of the others.  Werper and Jane have already escaped when Tarzen enters the camp to find them missing.  Mugambi follows him later also finding both missing.  He goes in search of Jane.  He walks through the jungle ludicrously calling out ‘Lady’ after each quarter mile or so.   Leathern lungs never tiring he shouts Lady into the face of Mourak and is captured.  Being a regular lightfoot he escapes having lifted the jewels from Werper.  Chulk then lifts them from him, Mugambi disappears until story’s end.

Let’s see:  Jane next.  Jane along with the jewels is the key to the story.  The jewels represent the woman as man’s female treasure.  Jane is the eternal woman in that sense.  The various men’s attitude toward the jewels reflects their own character.  Thus, Tarzan in his amnesiac simplicity wants the jewels for their intrinsic beauty.  He rejected the uncut stones for the faceted ones in Opar.  Even in the semi darkness of the vaults, or in other words, his ignorance, he perceived the difference.

Werper at various times thinks he can get the gold, the jewels and the woman at once.  He is happy to settle for the jewels taking them to his grave.  Mourak knowing nothing of the jewels is willing to settle for a few bars of gold.  When he takes the woman into his possession it is for the sole purpose of a bribe to his Emperor to mitigate his overall failure.  Not at all unreasonable.

Zek is too vile to consider as a human being dying in the fury of losing all.  Mugambi and Basuli are happy in their devotion to the woman to whom neither jewels or gold mean anything.

Tarzan then, pure in soul and spirit wins it all, woman, jewels and gold.  One is tempted to say he lived happily forever after but, alas, we know the trials ahead of him.

So Jane is carried off to Zek’s camp where all the action is centred while she is there.  Both Tarzan and Mugambi show up to rescue her but she has escaped just ahead of Werper who would thus have had the woman and the jewels.  Alone in the jungle she once again falls into Zek’s hands- that is to say those of Frank Martin.

Now, Tarzan, who has fallen in with a troop of apes chooses two, Taglat and Chulk, to help him rescue Jane from Zek.  Chulk is loyal but Taglat is an old and devious ape, apparently bearing an old grudge against Tarzan, who intends to steal Jane for his own fell purposes much worse than death.

In Tarzan’s attempt to rescue Jane, Taglat succeeds in abducting her.  He is in the process of freeing her bonds when a lion leaps on him.  In the succeeding battle Jane is able to escape the lion who had just killed Taglat.

Wandering through the jungle she hears shots, the voices of men.  Approaching the noise she discover Werper and Zek fighting it out.  She climbs a tree behind Werper.  When he shoots Zek he hears a heavenly voice from above congratulating him.  Jane runs to him hands outstretched.   So now Werper has the woman again while believing he can retrieve the jewels.  He can’t find them because unbeknownst to him Mugambi had substituted river rocks.

Improbably, except in a dream, he returns to Zek’s camp where he has to solve the problem of Zek’s second in command, Mohammed Beyd.  Werper spirits Jane out of the camp but finds her gone the next morning.  She had mistaken Mourak and his Abyssinians for Werper.  Mourak now in possession of the woman, no gold no jewels, thinks to redeem himself with his Emperor, Menelik II, with this gorgeous female.

During that night’s camp the boma is attacked by hordes of lions.  Lions play an amazingly central role in this story.  Interestingly this scene is replicated almost exactly in the later Tarzan And The City Of Gold.  In Jewels Tarzan rescues a woman while in Gold Tarzan rescues a man.  That story’s woman becomes his enemy.

But now Tarzan and Werper hear the tremendous battle with Tarzan entering the boma to rescue Jane.  By the time of the rescue Tarzan has regained the woman and the gold but lacks the jewels.

Unless I’m mistaken we now have only Tarzan and the apes to account for.

ERB’s life was at a turning point.  At this stage in his career he must have realized that he would have a good annual income for the rest of his life.  If only 5000 copies of the first edition of Tarzan of the Apes sold he would have received 6,500.00  Add his magazine sales to that and other income and 1914 must have equaled his income of 1913 or exceeded it.  His income probably grew until he was earning c. 100,000 per year for three years from 1919-1922.  So he had every reason to believe the world was his oyster through the teens.  That must have been an exhilarating feeling.  A sense of realization and power must have made him glow.  But the period was one of transition, a casting off of the old skin while growing into the new.  Thus one sees ERB abandoning his old self -Werper- while attempting to assume the new in Tarzan.  Thus in death Werper transfers the jewels, call them the Family Jewels,  from himself to Tarzan.

Tarzan begins the novel as an asexual being unaware of what jewels were or their value and receives them a the end of the novel as a release from emasculation or awareness of his sexual prowess.  Once again  Werper fades in the novel while Tarzan unaware of who he is comes to a full realization.  Presumably Burroughs thinks he is able to assume his new role as 1915 ends.

In the novel when Tarzan realizes Werper has stolen the jewels he goes off in search of this symbol of his manhood.  Werper is not in Zek’s camp.  On the trail Tarzan comes across the dead body of the Arab sent after Werper with he face bitten off.  He assumes this is Werper but can’t find the jewels.  Wandering about he discovers a troop of apes deciding to run with them for a while.  Selecting Chulk and Taglat he goes back to Zek’s camp to rescue Jane.  At that point Taglat makes off with Jane.  Discovering Zek and Werper on the way to the Estate Tarzan becomes involved in the battle between Zek and Mourak.  He sees Zek take the jewels and then throw them to the ground as worthless river rocks.

He encounters Werper in the jungle again and prompted by the man fully regains his memory only to have Werper arrested by the Belgian police officer.  The battle between Mourak and the lions ensues.  Tarzan goes to rescue Jane, Werper goes to his death.

The unarmed Tarzan faces a rampant lion.  Picking up an abandoned rifle he brains the lion, apparently in vengeance for all the indignities and injuries ERB has suffered in life.

Leaping with Jane into a tree they begin the journey back to the Estate to begin life anew.  Some time later they come across the bones of Werper to recover the jewels and make the world right.

The novel closes with Tarzan’s exclamation.

     “Poor devil!”…Even in death he has made restituion- let his sins lie with his bones.”

Was Burroughs speaking of Werper as his own failed self?  I believe sothe latter.   Remember that a favorite novel of ERB was Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and that he believed that every man was two men or had two more or less distinct selves.  Human duality is one of the most prominent themes in the corpus; thus ERB himself must have believed that he had a dual personality.  Tarzan will have at least two physical doubles, one is Esteban Miranda in Golden Lion and Ant Men, and the other Stanley Obroski in Lion Man.  Both were failed men as Werper is here.  Both obviously represented the other or early Burroughs as Werper does here.

In killing Werper ERB hoped to eliminate the memory of his failed self as he did with Obroski in Lion Man.  In other words escape his emasculation and regain his manhood.

The jumbled and incredibly hard to follow, or at least, remember, last half of the book with its improbable twists and turns in such a compressed manner gives the indication that this is a dream story.  Only dream logic makes the story comprehensible if still unbelievable.  The story then assumes fairy tale characteristics that don’t have to be probable to be understood as possible.

Can be genius, can be luck.  I will examine Burroughs novels in relation to dreams in Part V.  This part will not be as comprehensive as I would like but time grows short and it is better to make the attempt as not.

Part V follows.

 

A Review

The Low Brow And The High Brow

An In Depth Study Of Edgar Rice Burroughs’

The Mucker And Marcia Of The Doortstep

by

R.E. Prindle

Part II

Background Of The Second Decade- Personal

 

     Erwin Porges’ ground breaking biography Edgar Rice Burroughs: The Man Who Invented Tarzan is the basic source for the course of ERB’s life.  John Taliaferro’s Tarzan Forever is heavily indebted to Porges adding little new.  Robert Fenton’s excellent The Big Swinger is a brilliant extrapolation of Burroughs’ life taken from the evidence of the Tarzan series.

     Porges, the first to pore though the unorganized Tarzana archives, is limited by the inadequacies of his method and his deference for his subject.  His is an ideal Burroughs rather than a flesh and blood one.  Matt Cohen’s Brother Men: The Correspondene Of Edgar Rice Burroughs and Herbert T. Weston has provided much fresh material concerning ERB’s character.

     Bearing in mind always that Weston’s evaluation of Burroughs in his August 1934 letter in reply to Charles Rosenberg, whoever he was, about ERB’s divorce is one man’s opinion nevertheless his statements can be corroborated by ERB’s behavior over this decade as well as throughout his life.  My intent is not to diminish ERB in any way.  Nothing can take away the fact that Burroughs created Tarezan, but like anyone else he was subjected to glacial pressures that distorted and metamorphosed his character.

     During the Second Decade as he experienced a realization of who he was, or who he had always thought he should be, or in other words as he evolved back from a pauper to a prince, he was subjected to excruciatingly difficult changes.

     A key to his character in this period is his relationship to his marriage.  It seems clear that he probably would never have married, stringing Emma along until she entered spinsterhood while never marrying her.  He seemingly married her to keep her away from Frank Martin.  As he later said of Tarzan, the ape man should never have married.

     Rosenberg in his letter to Weston (p.234, Brother Men) said that ‘…Ed says he has always wanted to get rid of Emma….’  The evidence seems to indicate this.  After ERB lost Emma’s confidence in Idaho, gambling away the couple’s only financial resources, his marriage must have become extremely abhorrent to him.  I’m sure that after the humiliations of Salt Lake City this marriage had ended for him in his mind.  That it was his own fault changes nothing.  He may simply have transferred his self-loathing to Emma.

     That Emma loved and stood by Burroughs is evident.  that he was unable to regain her confidence is clear from his writing.  The final Tarzan novels of the decade in one of which, Tarzan The Untamed, Burroughs burns Jane into a charred mess identifiable only by her jewelry show a developing breach.  Probably the jewelry was that which ERB hocked as the first decade of the century turned.  Now, this is a fairly violent reaction.

     ERB states that he walked out on Emma several times over the years.  In Fenton’s extrapolation of Burroughs’ life from his Tarzan novels this period was undoubtedly one of those times.  There seems to have been a reconciliation attempt between Tarzan and Jane between Tarzan The Untamed and Tarzan The Terrible.  Then between Tarzan And The Golden Lion and Tarzan And The Ant Men ERB’s attempt to regain Emma’s confidence seems to have failed as Jane chooses the clown Tarzan- Esteban Miranda-, one of my favorite characters- over the heroic Tarzan -ERB – in Tarzan And The Ant Men.

     This undoubtedly began ERB’s search for a Flapper wife which took form in the person of Florence Gilbert beginning in 1927.

b.

     Weston says of ERB in his disappointment and rage over ERB’s divorce of Emma that ‘…the fact that Ed always has been unusual, erratic and perhaps queer, has been his great charm and attraction for me…’ (p.223, Brother Men)   There’s a remote possibility that ‘queer’ may mean homosexual but I suppose he means ‘odd’ or imcomprehensible in his actions.  The evidence for this aspect of ERB’s character is overwhelming while being well evidenced by his strange, spectacular and wonderful antics during the second decade.  When Weston says of him that ‘…there is no woman on earth that would have lived with him, and put up with him, except Emma…’ there is plenty of reason to accept Weston’s opinion.

     Part of ERB’s glacial overburden came from his father, George T. who died on February 13, 1913.  Burroughs always professed great love for his father, celebrating his birthday every year of his life, although one wonders why.

     Apparently George T. broadcast to the world that he thought ERB was ‘no good.’  His opinion could have been no secret to Burroughs.  Weston who says that he always maintained cordial relations with George T., still thought him a difficult man, always dropping  in to visit him on trips through Chicago said that George T. complained to him, ERB’s best friend, that his son was no good. While without disagreeing with George T. up to that point, Weston said that he thought there was plenty of good in ERB but that he just hadn’t shown it yet.  Kind of a back handed compliment, reminds me of Clarence Darrow’s defense of Big Bill Haywood:  Yeah, he did it, but who wouldn’t?’

     Such an opinion held by one’s father is sure to have a scarring effect on one’s character.  How exactly the effect of this scarring worked itself out during this decade isn’t clear to me.  Perhaps Burroughs’ mid year flight to California shortly after his father’s death was ERB’s attempt to escape his father’s influence.  Perhaps his 1916 flight was the same while his move to California in 1919 was the culmination of his distancing himself from his father.  That is mere conjecture at this point.

     Now, what appears erratic from outside follows an inner logic in the subject’s mind unifying his actions.  What’s important to the subject is not what obsevers think should be important.

c.

     The scholars of the Burroughs Bulletin, ERBzine and ERBList have also added much with additional niggardly releases of material by Danton Burroughs at the Tarzana archives.  One of the more valuable additions to our knowledge has been Bill Hillman’s monumental compilation of the books in ERB’s library.

     Let’s take a look at the library.  It was important to ERB; a key to his identity.  Books do furnish a mind, as has been said, so in that light in examining his library we examine the furnishing  of his mind.  The shelves formed an important backdrop to his office with his desk squarely in front of the shelves.  ERB is seated proudly at the desk with his books behind him.

     How much of the library survived and how much was lost isn’t known at this time.  Hillman lists over a thousand titles.  Not that many, really.  The library seems to be a working library.  There are no the long rows of matching sets by standard authors.  The evidence is that Burroughs actually read each and every one of these books.  They found their way into the pages of his books in one fictionalized form or another.  Oddly authors who we know influenced him greatly like London, Wells, Haggard and Doyle are not represented.

     Most of the works of these authors were released before 1911 when Burroughs was short of the ready.  Unless those books were lost he never filled in his favorites of those years.  That strikes me as a little odd.

     It is generally assumed that he picked up his Martian information from Lowell, yet in Skelton Men Of Jupiter he says:  ‘…I believed with Flammarion that Mars was habitable and inhabited; then a newer and more reputable school of scientists convinced me it was neither….’  The statement shows that Camille Flammarion’s nineteenth century book was the basis for Burroughs’ vision of Mars while Lowell was not.  Further having committed himself to Flammarion’s vision he was compelled to stick to it after he had been convinced otherwise.  When that understanding was obtained by him we don’t know but at sometime he realized that the early Martian stories were based on a false premiss.

     Thus, his Mars became a true fiction when his restless, searching mind was compelled by judicious reasoning of new material to alter his opinion.  That he could change his mind so late in life is an important fact.  It means that behind his fantasy was a knowledge of solid current fact.  The results of his pen came from a superior mind.  It was not the maundering of an illiterate but amusing boob.

     Organizing the books of his library into a coherent pattern is difficult.  I haven’t and I Imagine few if any have read all his list.  Based on my preliminary examination certain patterns can be found.  He appeared to follow the Chicago novel by whomever, Edna Ferber’s So Big is a case in point.  Seemingly unrelated titles can be grouped aorund certain Burroughs’ titles as infuences.

     In 1924 when Marcia Of The Doorstep was written ERB had already formed his intention of leaving, or getting rid, of Emma.  He began a fascination with Flappers that would result in his liaison with Florence.

     After the move to Hollywood in 1919 a number of sex and Flapper potboilers find their way into his library.  The tenor of literature changed greatly after the War showing a sexual explicitness that was not there prior to the Big Event.  To be sure the graphic descriptions of the sex act current in contemporary literature was not permissible but the yearning to do so was certainly there.  Language was retrained but ‘damn’ began to replace ‘d–n’ and a daring goddamn became less a rarity.

     Perhaps the vanguard of the change came in 1919 when an event of great literary and cultural import took place.  Bernarr Macfadden whose health and fitness regimes had very likely  influenced Burroughs during the first couple decades decided to publish a magazine called “True Story.”  The magazine was the forerunner of the Romance pulp genre while certainly being in the van of what would become the Romance genre of current literature.

     The advance was definitely low brow, not to say vulgar, indicating the direction of subsequent societal development including the lifting of pornographic censorship.  Pornography followed from “True Store” as night follows day.

     The magazine coincided with the emergence of the Flapper as the feminine ideal of the twenties.  In literature this was abetted by the emergence in literary fiction of F. Scott Fitzgerald.  His Beautiful And Damned is a key volume in Burroughs’ library forming an essential part of Marcia.  To my taste Fitzgerald is little more than a high quality pulp writer like Burroughs.  I can’t see the fuss about him.  He riminds me of Charles Jackson’s The Lost Weekend and vice versa.  In fact, I think Jackson mined the Beautiful And  Damned.  Plagiarize would be too strong a word.

     “True Story” caught on like a flash.  By 1923 the magazine was selling 300,000 copies an issue; by 1926, 2,000,000.  Low brow was on the way in.  Vulgarity wouldn’t be too strong a word.  Macfadden had added titles such as “True Romances” and “Dream World” to his stable.  His magazine sales pushed him far ahead of the previous leader, Hearst Publications, and other publishers.  Pulpdom had arrived in a big way.

     Where Macfadden rushed in others were sure to follow.  The sex thriller, the stories of willful and wayward women, which weren’t possible before, became a staple of the twenties in both books and movies.

     ERB’s own The Girl From Hollywood  published in magazine form in 1922, book form in 1923, might be considered his attempt at entering the genre.  Perhaps if he had thrown in a few Flapper references and changed the appearance and character of his female leads he mgiht have created a seamless transition from the nineteenth century to the twenties.  A few Flapper terms might have boomed his ales much as when Carl Perkins subsititued ‘Go, cat, go’ for go, man, go’ in his Blue Suede Shoes and made sonversts of all us fifties types.

     Certainly ERB’s library shows a decided interest in the genre from 1920 to 1930.  Whether the interest was purely professional, an attempt to keep up with times, or personal in the sense of his unhappiness in his marriage may be open to question.  I would have to reread his production of these years with the New Woman in mind to seek a balance.

     Still, during the period that led up to his affair with Forence ERB seems to have been an avid reader of Flapper and New Woman novels.

     He had a number of novels by Elinor Glyn who was the model of the early sex romance.  He had a copy of E.M. Hull’s The Sheik, that shortly became the movie starring Rudolph Valentine with its passionate sex scenes.  A ‘Sheik’ became the male synonym for Elinor Glyn’s ‘It’ girl.

     Of course, the influence of Warner Fabian’s Flaming youth of 1923, both book and movie, on ERB is quite obvious.

      Just prior to this relationship with Florence he read a number of novels by Beatrice Burton with such sexy titles as The Flapper wife-The Story Of A Jazz Bride, Footloose, Her Man, Love Bound  and Easy published from 1925 to 1930.

     I would like to concentrate on Burton’s novels for a couple reasons; not least because of the number of her novels in ERB’s library but that when Burroughs sought publication for his low brow Tarzan in 1913-14 he was coldly rebuffed even after the success of his newspaper serializations.  The disdain of the entire publishing industry was undoubtedly because Burroughs was the pioneer of a new form of literature.  In its way the publication of Tarzan was the prototype on which Macfadden could base “True Story.”  Not that he might not have done it anyway but the trail was already trampled down for him.  In 1914 Burroughs violated all the canons of ‘polite’ or high brow literature.

     A.L. Burt accepted Tarzan Of The Apes for mass market publication reluctantly and only after guarantees for indemnification against loss.  Now at the time of Beatrice Burton’s low brow Romance genre novels, which were previously serialized in newspapers, Grosset and Dunlap sought out Burton’s stories publishing them in cheap editions without having been first published as full priced books much like Gold Seal in the fifties would publish paperback ‘originals’ which had never been in hard cover.  Writers like Burton benefited from the pioneering efforts of Burroughs.  G& D wasn’t going to be left behind again.  Apparently by the mid-twenties profits were more important than cultural correctness.

     As ERB had several Burton volumes in his library it might not hurt to give a thumbnail of who she was.  needless to say I had never read or even heard of her before getting interested in Burroughs and his Flapper fixation.  One must also believe that Elinor Glyn volumes in ERB’s library dating as early as 1902 were purchased in the twenites as I can’t believe ERB was reading this soft sort of thing as a young man.  Turns out that our Man’s acumen was as usual sharp.  Not that Burton’s novels are literary masterpieces but she has a following amongst those interested in the Romance genre.  The novels have a crude literary vigor which are extremely focused and to the point.  This is no frills story telling.  The woman could pop them out at the rate or two or three a year too.

     Her books are apparently sought after; fine firsts with dust jackets go for a hundred dollars or more.  While that isn’t particularly high it is more than the casual reader wants to pay.  Might be a good investment though.  The copies I bought ran from fifteen to twenty dollars, which is high for what is usually filed in the nostalgia section.  Love Bound was forty dollars.  I bought the last but it was more than I wanted to pay just for research purposes.

     There is little biographical information about Burton available.  I have been able to piece together that she was born in 1894.  No death date has been recorded as of postings to the internet so she must have been alive at the last posting which woud have made her a hundred at least.

     She is also known as Beatrice Burton Morgan.  She was an actress who signed a contract with David Belasco in 1909 which would have made her fifteen or sixteen.  Her stage name may have been Beatrice Morgan.  The New York Public Library has several contracts c. 1919 in her papers.

     One conjectures that her stage and film career was going nowhere.  In The Flapper Wife she disparages Ziegfeld as Ginfeld the producer of the famous follies.

     Casting about for alternatives in the arts she very likely noticed the opening in sex novels created by Macfadden and the Roaring Twenties.  The Flapper Wife seems to have been her first novel in 1925.  The book may possibly have been in response to Warner Fabian/Samuel Hopkins Adams’ Flaming Youth.

     As the motto for his book he had “those who know, don’t tell, those who tell, don’t know.’  The motto refers to the true state of mind of women.  Burton seems to have taken up the challenge- knows all and tells all.  Flapper Wife was an immediate popular success when taken from the newspapers by G&D.  Critics don’t sign checks so while their opinion is noted it is irrelevant.

     Burton apparently hit it big as the movies came afer her, Flapper Wife was made into a movie in 1925 entitled His Jazz Bride.  Burton now had a place in Hollywood.  Burroughs undoubtedly also saw the movie.  What success Burton’s later life held awaits further research.  As there is no record of her death on the internet it is safe to assume that when her copyrights were renewed in the fifties it was by herself.

     There are a number of titles in the library having to do with the Flapper.  The library, then gives a sense of direction to ERB’s mental changes.  There are, of course, the Indian and Western volumes that prepared his way for novels in those genres.  As always his off the top of his head style is backed by sound scholarship.

     The uses of the various travel volumes, African and Southeast Asian titles are self-evident.  I have already reviewed certain titles as they applied to Burroughs’ work; this essay involves more titles and I hope to relate other titles in the future.  So the library can be a guide to Burroughs’ inner changes as he develops and matures over the years.

     The amont of material available to interpret ERB’s life has expanded greatly since Porges’ groundbreaking biography.  Much more work remains to be done.

     The second decade is especially important for ERB’s mental changes as his first couple dozen stories were written beginnng in 1911.  Moreso than most writers, and perhaps more obviously Burroughs work was autobiographical in method.  As he put it in 1931’s Tarzan, The Invincible, he ‘highly fictionalized’ his details.  For instance, the Great War exercised him greatly.  From 1914 to the end of the War five published novels incorporate war details into the narrative:  Mad King II, Beyond Thirty, Land That Time Forgot, Tarzan The Untamed, and Tarzan The Terrible as well as unpublished works like The Little Door.  Yet I don’t think the extent that the War troubled him is recognized.  The man was a serious political writer.

     Thus between the known facts and his stories a fairly coherent life of Burroughs can be written.  My essays here on the ERBzine can be arranged in chronological order to give a rough idea of what my finished biography will be like.

     Burroughs was a complex man with a couple fixed ideas.  One was his desire to be a successful businessman.  This fixed obsession almost ruined him.  He was essentially a self-obsessed artist and as such had no business skills although he squandered untold amounts of time and energy which might better have been applied to his art than in attempts to be a business success.

     In many ways he was trying to justify his failure to be a business success by the time he was thirty rather than making the change to his new status as an artist.

     As a successful artist he was presented with challenges that had nothing to do with his former life.  These were all new challenges for which he had no experience to guide him while he was too impetuous to nsit down and thnk them out properly.  Not all that many in his situation do.  Between magazine sales, book publishing and the movies he really should have had a business manager as an intermdiary.  Perhaps Emma might have been able to function in that capacity much as H.G. Well’s wife jane did for him.  At any rate book and movie negotiations diverted time and energy from his true purpose of writing.

     His attempt to single handedly  run a five hundred plus acre farm and ranch while writing after leaving Chicago ended in a dismal failure.  Even his later investments in an airplane engine and airport ended in a complete disaster.  Thank god he didn’t get caught up in stock speculations of the twenties.  As a businessman he was doomed to failure; he never became successful.  It if hadn’t been for the movie adaptations of Tarzan he would have died flat broke.

     Still his need was such that he apparently thought of his writing as a business even going so far as to rent office space and, at least in 1918, according to a letter to Weston, keeping hours from 9:00 to 5:30.  Strikes me as strange.  Damned if I would.

     At the end of the decade he informed Weston that he intended to move to Los Angeles, abandon writing and, if he was serious, go into the commercial raising of swine.  The incredulousness of Weston’s reply as he answered ERB’s questions on hog feed comes through the correspondence.

     Think about it.  Can one take such flakiness on ERB’s part seriously?  Did he really think his income as a novice pig raiser would equal his success as a writer with an intellectual property like Tarzan?  Weston certainly took him seriously and I think we must also.  There was the element of the airhead about him.

     A second major problem was his attitude toward his marriage and his relationship with Emma.

     He appears to have been dissatisfied with both at the beginning and decade and ready to leave both at the end.  According to the key letter of Weston ERB was an extremely difficult husbnad with whom Emma had to be patient.  As Weston put it, no other woman would have put up with his antics.  Unfortunately he doesn’t give details of those antics but the indications are that Emma was a long suffering wife.

     ERB’s resentment of her apparently became an abiding hatred.  Danton Burroughs released information about ERB’s third great romance with a woman named Dorothy Dahlberg during the war years of WWII through Robert Barrett the BB staff writer in issue #64.

     After having been estranged from her husband for about a decade Emma died on 11-05-44, probably of a broken heart.  ERB returned to Los Angeles from Hawaii to dispose of her effects.  Arriving on 11/19/44 after visiting his daughter he met with Ralph Rothmund in Tarzana where he proceeded to get soused, apparently in celebration of Emma’s death.

     To quote Barrett, p. 25, Burroughs Bulletin #64.

     After Ed met with Ralph Rothmund, he opened a case of Scotch and took out a bottle after which he drove to Emma’s home in Bel-Air- where he and Jack “sampled” the Scotch a couple times.”  From Bel-Air Jack drove Ed to the Oldknows, some friends also in Bel-Air, where they continued to sample the Scotch.  After this visit Ed and Jack returned to Emma’s home at 10452 Bellagio Road, where Jack brought out a nearly full bottle of bourbon.  Jack asked the maids to postpone dinner for 30 minutes, while they waited for Joan and Joan II.  This evidently irritated the two maids as they both quit  and walked out on them!  Ed reported in his diary that after the two maids walked out, ‘we had a lovely dinner and a grand time.”

     That sort of strikes me as dancing on the grave of Emma which indicates a deep hatred for her on the part of ERB.  We are all familiar with the storyof ERB’s pouring the liquor in the swimming pool humiliating Emma in front of guests which she stood so Weston must have known what he was talking about.

     There is a certain hypocrisy in Burroughs now getting blotto in celebration of Emma’s death.  Between the two of them in the space of a couple hours ERB and his son, John Coleman, finished a fifth of Scotch and went ripping through a bottle of bourbon.  I don’t know how rough and tough you are but that would put me under the pool table.

     In this inebriated and hostile state they apparently had words with what I assume to have been Emma’s long time maids.  Maids don’t walk out because you ask them to hold dinner for a few minutes.  Being a maid is a job; they don’t respond that way to reasonable requests.  So in his drunken state ERB must have been offensive about Emma or the maids causing their reaction.

     Thus sitting totally soused  in the ‘alcoholic’ Emma’s home they ‘had a lovely dinner and a grand time.’  The woman was both good to him and good for him but it isn’t incumbent on any man to see his best interests.  There was a crtain dignity lacking in ERB’s behavior at this good woman’s death, not to mention the hypocrisy of getting thoroughly jazzed.

d.

      The decade also witnesses the unfolding of ERB’s psyche from the repressed state of 1910 to an expanded and partially liberated state at the end of the decade when he fled Chicago.  Pyschologically ERB was always a dependent personality.  He let his editors both magazine and book bully him and take advantage of his good will.  He also needed a strong role model which is one reason his literary role models are so obvious.

     From 1911 to 1916 he seemed to lean on Jack London as his role model.  The problem with London is that we can’t be sure which of his books ERB read as he had none of his books in his library.  It seems certain that he read London’s early Gold Rush books.  ERB’s hobo information is probably based on London’s The Road and then he may possibly have read The Abyssmal Brute which is concerned with the results of the Jack Johnson-Jim Jeffries fight and a preliminary to The Valley Of The Moon. 

     It is difficult to understand how Burroughs could have read much during this decade what with his writing schedule and hectic  life style.  Yet we know for a fact that between 1913-15 he found time to read Edward Gibbon’s massive The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire.

     At the same time additions to his library from this decade are rather sparse, the bulk of the library seems to have been purchased from 1920 on.  Still, if one assumes that he read all the books of London including 1913’s Valley Of The Moon, then it is possible that his cross=country drive of 1916 may have been partially inspired by Billy and Saxon Roberts’ walking tour of Northern California and Southern Oregon in that book as well as on ERB’s hobo fixation.  Certainly London must have been his main influence along with H.H. Knibbs and Robert W. Service.  He may have wished to emulate London by owning a large ranch.

     I suspect he meant to call on London in Sonoma during his 1916 stay in California but London died in the fall of that year which prevented the possible meeting.  With the loss of London Burroughs had to find another role model which he did in Booth Tarkington.  He does have a large number of Tarkington’s novels in his library, most of which were purchased in this decade.  Tarkington was also closely associated with Harry Leon Wilson who also influenced ERB with a couple two or three novels in his library, not least of which is Wison’s Hollywood novel, Merton Of The Movies.  Just as a point of interest Harry Leon Wilson was also a friend of Jack London.

     ERB’s writing in the last years of the decade seems to be heavily influenced by Tarkington as in Bridge And The Oskaloosa Kid, The Efficiency Expert and The Girl From Hollywood.

     Burroughs was an avid reader and exceptionally well informed with a penetrating mind so that his ‘highly fictionalized’ writing which seems so casual and off hand is actually accurate beneath his fantastic use of his material.  While he used speculations of Camille Flammarion and possibly Lowell on the nature of Mars he was so mentally agile that when better information appeared which made his previous speculations untenable he had no difficulty in adjusting to the new reality.  Not everyone can do that.

     I have already mentioned his attention to the ongoing friction between the US and Japan that appeared in the Samurai of Byrne’s Pacific island.  In this connection Abner Perry of the Pellucidar series is probably named after Commodore Matthew Perry who opened Japan in 1853.  After all Abner Perry does build the fleet that opened the Lural Az.  Admiral Peary who reached the North Pole about this time is another possible influence.  The identical pronunciation of both names would have serendipitous for Burroughs.

     As no man writes in a vacuum, the political and social developments of his time had a profound influence on both himself and his writing.

     The effects of unlimited and unrestricted immigration which had been decried by a small but vocal minority for some time came to fruition in the Second Decade as the Great War showed how fragile the assumed Americanization and loyalty of the immigrants was.  The restriction of immigration from 1920 to 1924 must have been gratifying to Burroughs.

     I have already indicated the profound reaction that Burroughs, London and White America in general had to the success of the Black Jack Johnson in the pursuit of the heavyweight crown.  The clouded restoration of the crown through Jess Willard did little to alleviate the gloom.  Combined with the sinking of the Ttitanic and the course of the suicidal Great War White confidence was irrevocably shaken.

     Burroughs shared with London the apprehension that the old stock was losiing its place of preeminence to the immigrants.  This fear woud find its place in Burroughs writing where he could from time to time make a nasty comment.  His characterization of the Irish is consistently negative while his dislike of the Germans first conceived when he saw them as a young man marching through the streets of Chicago under the Red flag was intense.  Their participation in the Haymarket Riot combined with the horrendous reports of German atrocities during the War reinforced his dislike almost to the point of fanaticism.  While the post-war German reaction in his writing was too belated he had been given cause for misinterpretation.

     Always politically conservative he was a devoted admirer of Teddy Roosevelt while equally detesting Woodrow Wilson who was President eight of the ten years of the Second Decade.  When the Bolsheviks took over Russia in 1917 polarizing public opinion into the Right and Left ERB was definitely on the Right.

     By the end of the decade the world he had known from 1875 to 1920 had completely disappeared buried by a world of scientific and technological advances as well and social and political changes that would have been unimaginable in his earlier life.  The changes in sexual attitudes caused by among others Krafft-Ebbing, Havelock Ellis and Margaret Sanger would have been astounding.

     The horse had been displaced by the auto.  Planes were overhead.  The movies already ruled over the stage, vaudeville and burlesque.  Cities had displaced the country.  The Jazz Age which was the antithesis of the manners and customs of 1875-1920 realized the new sexual mores so that the Flapper and Red Hot Mama displaced the demure Gibson Girl as the model of the New Woman.

     When ERB moved from Chicago to LA in 1919 he, like Alice, virtually stepped through the looking glass into a world he never made and never imagined.  A Stranger In A Strange Land not different in many ways from the Mars of his imagination.

Go to Part III- Background Of The Second Decade Social And Political

 

 

 

A Review

The Low Brow And The High Brow

And In Depth Study Of The Edgar Rice Burroughs Novels

The Mucker And Marcia Of The Doorstep

by

R.E. Prindle

 

Part One

1.

     By the time Burroughs took up his pen to write at the age of 36 he had a lifetime of frustration and humiliation behind him.  Born into an affluent family, their means had petered out by the time young Burroughs reached manhood.  Thus he who had been born a prince had become a pauper.  ERB felt this keenly.  His problem became how to regain his position, his exalted destiny.

     The most direct and possible approach was to become an officer in the Army.  Burroughs closed that avenue early in life by botching his relationship with Colonel Rogers and Charles King of the Michigan Military Academ.

     He began a promising career at Sears, Roebuck but he found success there would be of a very anonymous sort as the member of the team.  Fearing to disappear into mercantile obscurity he aborted that career abruptly quitting his job with no prospects.

     In what may have been one of the most important decisions of his career he joined up with a patent medicine manufacturer named Dr. Stace.  This phase of his career has not been properly investigated.  Reasoning from inferences in the Corpus it seems reasonable that he and Stace ran afoul of the law.

     A Pure Food And Drug Act had been passed in 1906 which temporarily at any rate made the sale of patent medicines illegal.  A few years later the Supreme Court would once again legitimize their sale provided the contents were properly labeled.  For the time being there was a problem with the law.  Erwin Porges’ Edgar Rice Burroughs: The Man Who Invented Tarzan briefly discusses the relationship in this manner. p. 105:

Stace, whom Ed found very likable, had grown ashamed of the patent medicine business and was casting about for a more reputable type of livelihood.  His qualms may have been reinforced by the dubious attitude of the United States Government: “Alcola cured alcoholism all right, but the Federal Pure Food And Drug people tooke the position that there were worse things than alcoholism and forbade the sale of Alcola.”

     The portion in quotes is presumabley from Burroughs although Porges fails to properly identify it if so.

     Since the Pure Food And Drug people acted against Dr. Stace it is only fair to assume the police were involved and depending on how far Dr. Stace fought it, probably a Grand Jury.  It is probable then that Burroughs’ seeming intimate knowledge of police methods and Grand Juries was learned at this time.

     As Stace’s office manager it is possible that ERB bought into the company and was therefore more intimately involved.  Certainly he did not sever his relationship with Dr. Stace as a result of these legal actions, but instead formed a corporation or partnership with him immediately after to sell courses in salesmanship.  Hardly more respectable than patent medicines.

     As one usually found advertisements for such courses in the back of pulp magazines one can conjecture the status of the enterprise and also its chances of success.  The company bearing the name Burroughs-Stace did fail quickly.  Notice that Burroughs name came before that of Stace.

     Now, Alcola being an illegal product it could not have done ERB’s reputation much good to be associated with it.  Continuing his relationship with Dr. Stace in another questionable business would only confirm ERB’s rputation for operating on the legal borderline.  In later years Burroughs, while not denying that he had been associated with Stace, claimed to have never seen those people since the time thus attempting to dissociate himself from them.

     Thus ERB’s prospects loomed shakily.  As these events occurred in 1909-10 he was facing a lifetime of marginal jobs leading ever downward or taking the million to one chance of becoming a successful author.  Not too long after terminating his relationship with Dr. Stace he took up his pen.  Fate began to blow a strong wind into his sails, so to speak.

     However, if I am correct, he was now looked at askance by ‘polite’ society.

     His first writing efforts were a success.  So successful that he could get anything he wrote into print.  this began to bear fruit in 1913, two years after he began writing, when he could throw over his day job and become a self-supporting writer.

     Thus he was able to realize his ambition to regain his status of a prince after an interim of nearly thirty years.

     He still had to explain himself to himself and Emma as well as to Chicago in general.  Much of his output of 1913 would attempt to do just that; especially the first of the two works under consideration here:  The Mucker. 

2.

     The psychological baggage Burroughs brings to his writing to exorcise is considerable.  When H.G. Wells portrayed ERB as insane in Mr Blettsworthy Of Rampole Island there was an element of truth while the case was overstated.  ERB  was apparently able to disappear into himself whiie he was writing thus living an alternate reality which is what Wells was talking about.

     The ability to do so is probably why Burroughs’ writing has such immediacy, why his improbabiities are so believable.  One wonders what would have become of his mind if he hadn’t become a successful writer.  Perhaps the pseudonym he adopted for his first book, Normal Bean, was more to convince himself than others.  Bean as slang for head or mind.  Certainly his reaction to his success appears to border on the irrational.

     His psychological compression was so great that he nearly went off the rails in 1913 in his first blush of success.  It is impossible that he wasn’t being observed by others.  It is impossible that others didn’t consider him a phenom.  The Mars Trilogy and Tarzan were such strange creations for the times that he had to be viewed with wonder.  While one can never be sure when he is being referred to in the fiction of other writers it seems to me that there are resonances of Burroughs in such writers as John Dos Passos and F. Scott Fitzgerald.

     If he had designed his actions to get talked about he couldn’t have come up with anything more spectacular than his trip to California mid-1913 after a successful half year.  For the full year he would earn over ten thousand dollars.  This sum in 1913 was reaching the lower limits of super affluence.  You couldn’t add much to your comfort with more than ten a year, the rest was conspicuous consumption.  It all depends on which multiplier you use but the one I use brings the income out in today’s dollars as between three and five hundred thousand dollars.

     Sudden affluence after years of scrabbling for a living can do strange things to your mind.  ERB’s was rocked to its foundations.  He went crazy in his rush to spend his money.  A clothes horse like his wife Emma came into her own.  In his rush to spend ERB spent his income before it was earned.  He was literally broke between  checks from his publishers.

     Then in mid-1913 an event occurred which might have triggered his flight from Chicago to California.  The Black boxer, Jack Johnson was conceded his title in 1910 when he defeated the White favorite, Jim Jeffries.  He had actually won the title in 1908 when he defeated then champion Tommy Burns.  Whites were reluctant to acknowledge his claim to the title until he had fought Jeffries who the Whites thought was the ‘real’ champion because he had retired undefeated.

     Having disappointed White hopes by defeating Jeffries, Johnson was then set up on a morals charge and convicted in what amounted to a kangaroo court.  About to lose his appeal Johnson skipped the country in July of ’13 rather than go to jail as an innocent man.

     The Affair Jack Johnson had had a tremendous effect on Burroughs who was an ardent boxing fan.  Thus his novel The Mucker  deals extensively with the Johnson Affair.  I believe that since his assocition with Dr. Stace Burroughs was considered quasi-legit at best and hence in the same boat with a Johnson.

     When Johnson split it seemed to cause an equal reaction in Burroughs.  Johnson went East to Europe while ERB went West to California.  In july of ’13 ERB began work on his realistic Chicago novel The Girl From Farris’s.  This work was undoubtedly intended to explain his actions between 1899 and 1911.  Once he got started he immediately ran into writer’s block being unable to continue the novel.  Before he could continue he had to work out several issues.  Thus he did what was for him a very unusual thing.  He began the book in July of ’13 only finishing it in March of ’14.  In between he wrote five other novels in his usual rapid fashion.  the were, in order  The Mucker, The Mad King Pt. 1, The Eternal Lover Ptl 1, Beasts Of Tarzan and The Lad And The Lion.   The entire set of six stories then are all closely related and should properly be understood only as aspects of the same novel- The Girl From Faris’s. 

     We are going to consider only the first of the inner five, The Mucker, here.  Thus the trip to California begins to work out the redemption or Salvation of Edgar Rice Burroughs.  The whole set might be titled:  Edgar Rice Burrougs In Search Of Himself.  

     One must not underestimate the influence of the two or possibly three central events in Burroughs’ life; his confrontatin with John The Bully in 1884-85, the 1899 trip to New york with the Martins and his dramatic relationship with Dr. Stace.  One cannot devalue his relationship with his father or Charles King, nor the very influential visit to Idaho where he came under the influence of Lew Sweetser, but his first three seem to dominate his life and work.

     A major consequence of his confrontation with John The Bully is that it declassed him.  ERB’s Animus became part prince, part pauper; part outlaw, part orthodox as demonstrated in The Outlaw Of Torn.   The trip in the private rail car showed him how far down the economic scale he was and how far he had to climb.  Although he won the hand of Emma from Martin I think it very likely that when he and Emma returned from Idaho Martin renewed his attentions to Emma.  He undoubtedly drove one  of the big new automobiles with which the impoverished ERB could not compete.  About all he could do if he thought Emma’s affection were wobbling was to get her pregnant.  In 1908 and 1909 the couple had two children in rapid succession although they could afford them no more than in their first eight years of marriage.

     Thus ten years after had taken Emma to Idaho, for reasons that are unclear to us, he took her to California.  Always the wastrel he made the trip in the most expensive way possible.  The family went first class.

     As Porges quotes him ERB says:  “I had decided I was too rich to spend my winters in Chicago so I packed my family, all my furniture, my second hand automobile and bought transportation to Los Angeles.

     This was not the most rational move for a man who had written an “Ode To Poverty” not too long before.  He had no assurance of being able to write or sell stories, without the sale of which he would be stranded, broke twenty-five hundred miles from his home.  Of course he still had all his furniture.  There was no one who could help him financially.  It is interesting to speculate on what sort of job he would have applied for.

     Why would a man do this?  ERB had apparently bought his used car, a Velie, at the beginning of 1913 when for all practical acounts he was still broke.  Why the urgent need to hop a train?  I think the reason can be traced back to Frank Martin.  The humiliation of the trip East in a private railcar in 1899 and the subsequent stay in the Bowery while the Martins  lived on Riverside Drive had to be compensated.  While ERB couldn’t afford a new car he rushed out to buy a used one which was apparently as much as he thought he could afford at the time.  On the other hand as his characters always say of themselves:  For me. to think is to act. if the Martins among other ‘plutocrats’ wintered in Florida then as ERB could still not compete with them financially he went West.

     Arriving in LA he and family drove the second hand Velie down to San Diego with the furniture apparently entrained for the same destination.

     During this period ERB’s behavior is absolutely zany.  Unable to stay put in LA he moved to Coronado which is a sand spit on the west side of San Diego Bay.  North Island Naval Air would be built on the North end of it.  The Carriers used to be docked on the ocean side as their draft was too great for the Bay.  Disliking Coronado he moved back across the bay to the first low ridge of hills that separates the city proper from the Bay.  He apparently was near the crest as he said he could look over it to the East.  When I was in the Navy in San Diego I thought this small ridge only a couple miles in length had the most deligthful climate on Earth.  I still think it does.  So, in 1913-14 before 101 became a major noisy highway at the base of the hill ERB was living in as close to paradise as anyone in this world can ever get.

     It was here he explored his psychological problems.

3.

     Burroughs because of his encounter with John The Bully, had been rendered susceptible to ‘low brow’ influences.  His subsequent life with its constant moving from school to school, from Illinois to Idaho, to Connecticut, to Michigan, to Arizona and back to Illinois had not put into contact with too many ‘high brow’ influences.

     In constrast, his wife Emma Hulbert, had been trained to high brow avocations from childhood.  I’m sure that one of the objections of her parents to ERB was that he was so detestably low brow.  Emma, afer all, had been trained to the opera which is the epitome of high brow.  Emma often referred to ERB as a low brow during their marriage which can be somewhat trying.  If one contrasts The Mucker with Marcia Of The Doorstep it will become immediately apparent that the former is low brow and the latter is intended to be high brow.  So the dominating theme of The Mucker is between the low brow Billy Byrne and the high brow Barbara Harding.  The problem as it surfaces when the two come into contact is how Barbara is to turn the low brow mucker into a high brow or at least into a low brow with good speech and mannerisms.  This may have been a daily conflict between ERB and Emma in real life.

     The first question is how far ERB identifies with Billy Byrne.  It is my contention that Billy is an alter ego conditioned by ERB’s confrontation with John The Bully.

     I have explained elsewhere that terror may be used to introduce a hypnotic suggestion.  Terror opens the mind to suggestion.  In ERB’s case when he was in terror of John he accepted the suggestion that because John was terrorizing him he was an admirable person to be emulated.  Of course this went against the teaching of his family so that ERB now divided his Animus nearly equally between his father/family and John.  Even though his family training commanded his first allegiance, John declassed him so that he mentally assumed the traits of this hoodlum Irish boy.  In a sense ERB split his personality.

     As would be expected the assumption of John’s characteristics caused a personality conflict which it was necessary to resolve.  One must assume that by 1913’s Mucker ERB was aware of his peronality conflict and began the attempt to write it out.

     For those new to the term a mucker was one who wallowed in the muck of society, a low class person with very little or no redeeming social value.  Thus Burroughs is dealing very harshly with both himself and Byrne/John.

     It may be assumed beyond doubt that John was first generation immigrant.  As he was twelve when he confronted ERB in 1884-85 he must have been born in 1872.  He may actually have been born in Ireland or was at least the son of immigrants hence his Irish prejudices against the English would be very strong while the Irish at the time were considered on a social and racial par with the Negro  or perhaps even below.  Combining these social disadvantages he was raised in Chicago’s great West Side which ERB with undisguised horror describes.

     He also very carefully indicates that Byrne was not an inherently bad person but was strictly a product of his environment.  He could have been anything raised in a different social setting.  Nurture over nature.  An interesting liberal opinion in an age when heredity was accredited to a criminal type.  By explaining Byrne as a product of his environment Burroughs was also justifying himself.  Indeed, how could he have learned the social graces to which he was entitled by birth having been brought up viewing the underbelly of society.  Probably ERB did not become acquainted  with the social graces or high brow point of view until he married Emma.

     If his social education began with his marriage to Emma then Byrne’s begins when he and Barbara Harding are brought into close contact on ‘Manhattan Island’ in the river of their Pacific island locale where they ‘play house.’  Thus there is more than sufficient evidence to indicate that Byrne and Burroughs are similar.  Both names even begin with a B.

     As he is part of Burroughs’ psyche ERB has to exonerate Byrne as well as rehabilitate him into someone at least that Burroughs can respect.  This is the burden of the book.

     After a youthful life in which Byrne makes the best of a bad situation, during which he became competent to survive and dominate in a difficult environment, Byrne takes a step up by becoming involved in boxing.  Thus he goes from a no brow to a low brow.  Already a fearsome street brawler Byrne becomes a formidable scientific boxer as well.  He is good enough to be a sparring partner with the Big Smoke himself.  This must have been before July 1913 but no earlier than say 1911.

     Sometime in 1912 or early 1913 Byrne is falsely accused of murder by one Sheehan who Byrne had defeated in a fight when they were twelve.  Billy had earlier saved a policeman’s life who was being savagely beaten by a rival gang on Byrne’s turf.  The policeman now returns the favor by advising Byrne to get out of town which advice Billy take seriously not unlike Jack Johnson.  Thus Johnson goes East, Byrne goes West at exactly the same time.  Coincidence?

     Billy bobs up in San Francisco about the same time that ERB shows up in the sunny Southland.  They both reach California at the same time.  Another coincidence?

     Unfortunately for Billy he gets shanghaied by the guy he intends to roll.  He is taken aboard the Half Moon.  The ship on which Henry Hudson explored New York’s Hudson River was named the Half Moon so there is a little joke here as Barbara and Byrne reside on a Manhattan Island in their Pacific location.

     Being shanghaied wasn’t the worst thing that could have happened to Byrne for while he is aboard he is forced to learn discipline- putting a little organization into his chaotic mind.  The Half Moon might also stand for the MMA in ERB’s memory.  He was more or less shanghaied into attendance when his father made him return after he had run away from the school.  Then, under the tutelage of Charles King who he respected he learned the rudiments of self-discipline.

     Even though Byrne is a sort of wildman Burroughs shows the greatest respect for him.

     Byrne’s next civilizing lesson comes when the Half Moon pretending distress captures the Harding yacht aboard which Byrne is transferred.

     The yacht named the Lotus, perhaps after Tennyson’s poem ‘The Lotus Eaters.’  The Lotus Eaters sat around all day in idle forgetfulness which was a pretty good description of the Harding party and another joke.  Burroughs had a copy of Tennyson’s poems in his library so the association is probable, besides which as Burroughs had a strong grounding in Greek mythology he would have been familiar with the Lotus Eaters from his Homer.

     Burroughs, who had never been to sea, knew nothing of the ocean.  His source for sea matters most probably was Jack London.  ERB was a great admirer of London but as he had nothing in his library one can only guess at what he had read.  There’s pretty good evidence for The Call Of The Wild and The Sea Wolf.  He may have picked up his South Seas lore from London’s Son Of The Son (The Adventures of Captain David Grief  in my edition).  The last book was published in 1911 but Burroughs probably had read it.  As he would project the making of Melville’s Typee into a movie in the ’30s it is possible that he was already familiar with that book and Melville’s other South Sea romance, Omoo at least as early as 1913.

     Both myself and other researchers are pretty liberal about ERB’s reading list but as I have cautioned before the bulk of his reading for these early stories had to be done between 1900 and 1911 when he was a very busy man with troubles in mind not to mention excruciating headaches.  Along with newspapers and magazines he surely couldn’t have read more than two or three hundred books if that many.  He may have read a number of sea stories in various magazines at any rate, but his sea lore is second hand, unreliable and unknowledeable.

     He has the Lotus tending Southwest toward the Philippines having begun in Hawaii.  The Philippines is a large archipelago blending into the massive archipelago just South of it, the Lotus should have been in Equatorial waters where the trade winds blow.  Most of your monster storms are further North or South.  I was in the Navy making one tour from California in the East to China in the West, South to Australia and North to Japan.  I had the terrifying experience of passing through a typhoon off Japan which if it wasn’t the storm of the millenium I can’t imagine a greater.  Quite seriously, we all thought we were going to die.  My only thought was that the water was going to be awfully cold when I hit it.

     I do not jest when I say the waves were seventy-five feet high, you’re right, why not make them a hundred, maybe they were a hundred, two would be stretching it.  I was standing on the bridge twenty-five feet above the water line looking straight up at the crest of the waves when we were in the trough.  OK.  A hundred twenty-five then.  We were so far down in the trough there was no wind, nor did the waves break over us, they just slid under the ship raising us to the crests and then we slid down the other side.  I kid you not.

     Then, as we came down from the crest, way up there, at the bottom of the trough the ship slammed into a current bringing it to a complete halt left and right and fore and aft.  These troughs were not rows of waves and troughs, no no, but huge bowls perhaps a mile or more long.  Our ship was three hundred six feet long so there we were a speck, an atom, a proton sitting quietly in the midst of this huge bowl waiting for the swatter of fate to fall.

     I had been thrown across the deck from port to starboard when we slammed into the current.  I scrambled to my feet, noticed that the starboard watch, Engelhardt, was on the way over the side for a tete a tete with Davy Jones.  I knew that Jones didn’t have the time for an ordinary Seaman like Engelhardt or me so I grabbed his belt and pulled him back aboard, then ran over to port to wait to die.

     Now that was a storm.  I don’t know how we rode it out, I thought the end had come, was past.  So, why did I tell that?  Because ERB’s storms are ludicrous and in the wrong place.  A cloud appears, the next thing you know a few indeterminate big waves show up and the ship sinks but the lifeboats survive.  All this in equatorial waters.  Well, if you’ve never been in it, it might sound alright.

     It doesn’t matter because those sudden squalls in ERB’s stories represent his confrontation with John The Bully.  Within the twinkling of an eye ERB’s whole direction of life changed.

  His had been for the worse but Byrne’s was for the better.  This then reflected the change in Burroughs’ own fortunes.

     Byrne and the crew are thrown up on an unidentified island somewhere in the South seas but a fairly large one.  In those years one could believe that there were islands yet to be discovered.  This one has a river big enough to allow for a largish island in the middle.  It is here that Byrne will get his introduction to the finer side of life.  However not before some very exciting and exotic adventures showing Burroughs at his best.

Apart from Jules Verne, who might also be an influence on this book through his The Mysterious Island that had a tremendous influence on Burroughs though the book was not in his library.  ERB seems to be familiar with a number of French authors.  He had The Mysteries Of Paris by the incredible Eugene Sue in his Library, while it is fairly obvious he had been suitably impressed by Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables.  The sewer scene in his next book, The Mad King, is indicative of that while Theriere in this book may be a variation on Thenardier.  He was also familiar with Dumas’ The Three Musketeers as there are several references to that one including the sequel to The Mucker, Out There Somewhere, when he indicates an intent to create his own three Musketeers in Byrne, Bridge and Burke.

     As indicated in my Only A Hobo, ERB was probably immersed in US-Japanese relations that were fairly hot at this time as well as remembering the Japanese exhibit at the Columbian Expo of 1893.  He gets his facts right too.

     In this case the island is populated by an indigenous population that has been blended with a group of Samurai warriors from Japan.  Burroughs correctly indicates that the Samurai had come to the island just before Japan was closed to the world in the early seventeenth century.  From about 1620 to about 1860- Perry opened Japan in 1853- no one had been allowed to enter or leave Japan so ERB has been doing his homework.  Over the three hundred years a degenerate society of militant Samurai had combined with the indigenes to create a culture of savages.  An interesting anthropological notion not too unlike The Lord Of The Flies that has been a literary staple for the last sixty years.

     Byrne and Theriere engage in a terrific conflict to rescue Barbara Harding from the Samurai during which Theriere is killed and Byrne seriously wounded.  Barbara Harding nurses him back to health in an idyllic glen by a babbling brook.

     At this point Byrne is reunited with his Anima ideal.  Barbara is going to rehabilitate this guy.  He has made some few steps toward his own redemption but the following is the quality Barabara had to work with as described by ERB p. 17:

…Billy was mucker, a hoodlum, a gangster, a thug, a tough.  When he fought he would have brought a flush of shame to the face of His Satanic Majesty.  He had hit oftener from behind than before.  He had always taken every advantage of his size and weight and numbers that he could call to his assistance.  He was an insulter of girls and women.  He was a bar-room brawler, and a saloon corner loafer.  He was all that was dirty, and mean, and contemptible and cowardly in the eyes of a brave man, and yet, notwithstanding all this Billy Byrne was no coward.  He was what he was because of training (conditioning) and environment.  He knew no other methods, no other code.

     As Burroughs says, up to this time Byrne had been an insulter of women, abusive to the whole female sex, probably including his mother.  It is only now that his eyes begin to open to what Jack London would call the wonder of woman.  How far Byrne reflects ERB’s general attitude toward women isn’t clear although by the end of his life his misogyny was becoming pronounced.  He was certainly no ladies man prior to is marriage to Emma.  I am not certain he would have married if it hadn’t been for the competition with Martin.   The suddenness of his marriage after the Toronto incident indicates a Martin influence or else he was bonkers after the blow.  When he later said Tarzan should never have married he was undoubtedly talking about himself.  He certainly never placed Emma first, being always ready to accept an army commission, fight in Central America, seek a commission in the Chinese army or become a war correspondent all of which would have left Emma and the kids at home.

     At the same time Barbara who had detested Byrne becomes softened to him preparing her to love him once they moved downstream to Manhattan Island.  This may be some romanticized version of ERB’s relationship with Emma after Toronto although she seems to have been fixed on Burroughs from childhood.  At any rate the relationship comes to fruition downstream where the high brow Barbara attempts so raise the brow level of Byrne.

     If one takes high brow, low brow seriously being thought of as a low brow, that is inferior, can be annoying.  Since Burroughs has chosen in his first novel within the cocoon of Girl From Faris‘s  to write around the theme of a low brow hero I think it fair to believe it irritated him to be thought of as a low brow; especially so as in most instances he was much better educated than those who so named him.  Chief among these was his wife Emma.  Whereas she had been trained ot operatic arias ERB played the hillbilly tune Are  You From Dixie?  over and over again on his phonograph.  Hillbilly music really irritates the operatic type.  There must have been constant conflict in the household.

     Emma especially looked down on boxing as low brow.  ERB was an ardent boxing fan, while here he chooses a low brow boxer as hero.  ERB could have some startling opinions on what was high brow.  He thought auto races were high brow.  I don’t know what the crowds were like back then but I’ve been to the stock car races where I found high brows conspicuous only by their absence.

     But, to the Mucker.   Moving downsteam after his recovery on this rather large river coming closer to the estuary they hit an island.  Being bounded as it were by a Hudson on one side and East River on the other they named the island Manhattan.  There’s a nice Expo twist and joke here as in Chicago on the Wooded Island one came upon a Japanese settlement in the middle of the city; here on a Samurai Island in the Pacific one comes upon a Manhattan Island of Americans.  Kind of cute reversal, don’t you think?

     As Billy has to know some details about Manhattan to keep the story moving, Burroughs rather lamely invents a couple trips Billy had made to New York with the Goose Island Kid.    As the boxing scene Burroughs describes, with the exception of the Big Smoke is entirely Irish one might note the origin of the name of The Goose Island Kid.  Goose Island was an area in the Chicago River inhabited by the poorest of the Irish, so the Kid comes from the bottom of the social scale even below Byrne’s origins.  One should contrast this with Burroughs prized English ancestry.

     Burroughs is writing from experience either psychological or real.  Thus one asks when was ERB in New York to acquire his knowledge of the city.  Well, let’s see:  He had an extended stay in 1899.  That was the trip when he got bashed in Toronto.  Then he had a short stay at the the invitation of Munsey.  Most of what he knew must have come from the 1899 trip.

     On their desert Manhattan Island Barbara, who up to this time had been repelled by Byrne makes an attempt at deconditioning Byrne from a Mucker and reconditioning him as an upper class New Yorker.  the conditioning consists of ridding him of the horrific characteristics attributed to him by ERB while teaching him to speak in an educated manner.  As there was no tableware she couldn’t teach him which fork to use.

     Possibly this scene may reflect on the first couple years of Burroughs’ married life.  Remember that ERB hadn’t been much around polite society from the years of twelve to twenty-five during which he was conditioned to his low brow attitudes.  Emma had been brought up in a high brow environment so that she may have felt the need to isntruct her new husband in some of the finer points of good manners.

     When Frank Martin (see my Four Crucial Years) asked ERB to go to New York with him in 1899 he did so with a heart full of malice.  He was competeing with Burroughs for Emma Hulbert’s favors and, as is commonly believed, he felt all’s fair in love and war.

     The evidence points to the fact that he intended to have ERB murdered in Toronto to clear his path to the woman.  Along the way he must have done his best to humiliate his rival- the mucker Ed Burroughs.

     ERB was moving in much faster company than he was used to.  While coming from a once affluent family his people had fallen on hard times.  ERB’s income was little more than sixty dollars a month while Frank Martin the son of a millionaire could blow that much on dinner every night of the week.

     Riding in Martin’s father’s private railcar one imagines that ERB’s suit compared to the fabulous duds of Martin was laughable.  The contrasts between their two stations must have been even more laughable and very satisfying to Martin.  Martin would have considered himself a high brow to Burroughs’ low brow.

     Once in New York Martin’s hospitality didn’t extend to living quarters.  ERB gives no indication of how much money he took along or where he got it.  I should be surprised if he had so much as two hundred dollars, certainly no more.  However much he had there was no way he could have kept up with the Martins.

     His address while in New York was down on the Bowery while the Martin’s was in a better part of town, perhaps Riverside Drive.  Danton Burroughs has a picture of the three of them- Burroughs, Martin  and Martin’s other companion, R.H. Patchin, on Coney Island.  One hopes Danton will release the photo to ERBzine along with any other information he may have.  Coney Island would be good low brow entertainment to offer Burroughs, something he could afford.

     A possible account of how Burroughs felt during his dependency on Martin can be found in one of the volumes in ERB’s library:  The House Of Mirth by Edith Wharton.  The reading of it must have brought pangs of recognition to ERB.

     In The Mucker Billy Byrne speaks of Riverside Drive and the Bowery in this way:

“Number one, Riverside Drive,” said the Mucker with a grin, when the work was completed: “an’ now I’ll go down on the river front and build the Bowery.”

“Oh, are you from New York?” asked the girl.

“Not on your life,” replied Billy Byrne.  “I’m from good old Chi but I been to Noo York twict with the Goose Island Kid, so I knows all about it.  De roughnecks belong on de Bowery, so dat’s what we’ll call my dump down by de river.  You’re a high brow, so youse gotta live on Riverside Drive, see?’ and the mucker laughed at his little pleasantry.

     In 1913 the only real experience Burroughs had with New York was the 1899 trip so that one can guess that when the Martin party detrained Burroughs as a ‘roughneck’ went to the Bowery while Martin and his group went to Riverside Drive or its equivalent.  Surely Burroughs realized he had been duped at this point and felt it keenly.  Or, perhaps, he didn’t catch on until much later having thought about it for a while.  Referring to the Irish Martin as The Goose Island Kid who took him to New York may be a belated disguised slap in the face.  If Martin read the book I’m sure he would have understood.

     At this point is the novel Barbara begins Byrne’s deconditioning teaching him the Riverside patois thus giving him true English as a second language to his native Muckerese.  Thus Byrne is to some extent rehabilitated as a human being; this follows fairly close that of Jean Val Jean of Les Miserables, however as Billy ruefully learned there is more to reconditioning than language.

     At this point Byrne has a dual personality.  He is the low brow mucker and a high brow mucker in that he has learned certain mannerisms and he can speak both forms of English.

     If the scene on Manhattan Island to some extent reflected the relationship between ERB and Emma then the seeds of his discontent  which will result in divorce have already been sown.  The parting from Barbara at the end of the story may be the first prefiguration of his divorce.

     On the other hand Byrne has been temporarily reunited with his Anima figure somewhat in the manner of Eros and Psyche in Greek mytholotgy which makes him a complete being, his X and Y chromosomes being reconciled.  They are soon split apart again as he and Barbara find their separate ways to NYC.

4.

      Upon Byrne’s return to NYC Burroughs begins to wrestle with the problem of the displacement of a White heavyweight boxing champ with a Black one.  In our age when boxing has become a totally Black sport it is difficult to see the real significance of Jack Johnson’s assumption of the championship for both Whites and Blacks.  The success of Johnson also came at a time when in competition with immigrants the Anglo ‘old stock’ was being displaced from a feeling of rightful preeminence in a country it had made.

     This displacement by immigrant’s also occured at the time when the ranks of the European conquerors of the world had reached their limitations and the conquered began to roll them back.  Thus one has such volumes of the period as Madison Grant’s The Passing Of The Great Race and Lothrop Stoddard’s The Rising Tide Of Color.  The world was mysteriously changing slipping from beneath the White Man’s feet.

     Complementary to the works of Grant and Stoddard, but not influenced by them, was the world of such writers as Zane Grey, Jack London and Burroughs.  A common thread in the world of all three is the displacement of the ‘old stock’ by immigrants.  London has a telling phrase in his excellent and highly recommended Valley Of The Moon when his character Billy Roberts is told that the ‘old stock’ had been sleeping and that now like Rip Van Winkle they were awakening to a new world that had changed while they slept.  This theme would reappear in such works as Booth  Tarkington’s The Magnificent Amerberson’s and Burroughs’ own The Girl From Hollywood of the next decade.

     The social conflicts are treated almost identically by all three authors.

     Richard Slotkin in his Gunslinger Nation attempts an exhaustive treatment of the problem from the Gustavus Myers’ immigrant/unskilled labor point of view which may be contrasted with that of our three masters.  I will discuss this a little later.

     Great changes were in progress.  To try to characterize them from a single point of view as the Myers’ school does is both foolhardy and pernicious.  While the immigrants and unskilled labor have their story it is only their story, a small part of the whole.  While one can sympathize with anyone, anywhere, one cannot necessarily accept their point of view as definitve on which point they do insist.  My heart goes out to everyone but does not rule my head.

     The argument then breaks down broadly between the Liberal Coalition and what name is appropriate for the other side? -the rational? the realistic?, the conservative?.  Why not settle for the Conservative with all its limitations.  Yes, I am unapologetically conservative.  No more limitating actually than calling the irresponsibility of the Coalition liberal.  I fail to see the liberality.

     The argument devolves into the two factions of the ‘old stock’ with the convervative wing being hopelessly outnumbered when the liberal wing aligned themselves along national and racial lines with the immigrants and Blacks and along poltical and religious lines with the Judaeo-Communists or more conveniently- the Reds.  Reds is shorter.

     That writers of the bent of Burroughs, London and Grey have survived at all, let alone remained popular, in such an environment is remarkable indeed.

     From 1910 to 1919 major events that affected our writers occurred and typified the decline of Euroamerica from its pinnacle of self-satisfaction.  The Great War which ran from 1914 to 1918 shattered the image of Euroamerica before the rest of the world  Successful resistance not only appeared possible to the defeated peoples but probable.  Note the advantage Japan took of the debacle.

     A second event almost prefiguring the Great War was the sinking of the great ship RMS Titanic in 1912.  Billed as unsinkable it represented the peak of Euroamerican scientific and technological skill.  When that Grat Ship went down on its maiden voyage it took a great deal of the West’s confidence down with it.  While the West watched in dismay and horror the rest of the world cheered  the West’s discomfiture.  Unsinkable indeed!

     But perhaps the single most disastrous blow to the pride of Euroamericans was when the Black Jack Johnson laid the pride of the Whites, Jim Jeffries, down in the fourteenth on July 4, 1910.  The might Casey, Jim Jeffries, had struck out.  The much despised Negro, Jack Johnson, walked away wearing the world heavyweight championship belt.

     The Whites howled, they rioted but they had shot their best shot and there was no backup.  No contender.  No hope.

     Jack London actually reported the fight.  He was there.  Ringside.  Nor was he charitable toward Jack Johnson.  He said things that might better have remained unsaid.  We have no indication as to what Burroughs thought at the time.  By the time he spoke publicly in The Mucker he had had time to mature his thoughts.

     The effect on London was traumatic.  In 1911 he published his book The Abyssmal Brute, his first thoughts on the fight.  The fight not yet out of his system London expressed himself still further in his 1913 novel The Valley Of The Moon.  I’ve said it before.  I’m no Jack London fan.  I’ve only read him more or less at the insistence of ERBzine’s Bill Hillman.  If I had gone to the grave without reading The Call Of The Wild or The Sea Wolf  I wouldn’t have considered it a loss.  Not the same with Valley Of The Moon.  This book along with ERB’s Bridge And The Oskaloosa Kid is one of the neglected masterpieces of twentieth century American literature.  It alone justifies London’s excellent reputation.

     The story is that of two Oakland, California young people, Billy Roberts and his sweetheart Saxon Brown.  While lamenting the displacement of the ‘old stock’ by the immigrants London also makes this a boxing story along the same lines as The Mucker. 

     In fact the stories are quite similar in conception.  If one didn’t know that the authors were writing at the same time 2500 miles from each other one would think they may have written on the same theme as a bet.  London, too, must have been influenced by the midnight flight of Johnson from Chicago.  London makes Roberts an outstanding boxer in the Bay Area.  Roberts gives up boxing because of the fate of boxers  and because of the low brow fans.  Later in the book London  says that Roberts sparred with both Jim Jeffries and Jack Johnson.

     After a  long period of unemployment in an attempt to win a hundred dollar prize to relieve his and Saxon’s poverty he agrees to go back in the ring, the squared circle,  as Burroughs always refers to it.  The fight with the Chicago Terror is very reminiscent of the Jeffries-Johnson battle.  Like Jeffries Roberts hadn’t fought for a long time.  Like Jeffries he was out of condition.  After retiring in 1905 Jeffries had taken up farming, blossoming out to three hundred pounds.  When the call came to redeem the honor of the White species sometime after 1908 Jeffries had to quickly get into condition losing all the extra tonnage.

     He had certainly not regained his top form, timing and mental focus when he climbed into the ring to face Johnson.  I make no excuses for him but as Jeffries said he saw his openings but his unconditioned reflexes didn’t allow him to take advantage of them.  His failure broke the hearts of his followers.

     The battle between Roberts and the Chicago Terror, johnson must have been intended, is probably a replay of the 1910 fight as seen by London.  Out of condition and rusty Roberts gets mauled from start to finish.  In an attempt to salvage special pride London has Roberts at least stay on his feet till the twentieth unlike the fourteenth round fall of Jeffries.

      Toward the end of Valley Of The Moon London has Roberts climb nto the ring again, this time against a Big Swede, sort of polar to the Big Smoke.  In the second of two bouts Roberts has difficulty putting the Big Swede away until the fourteenth.  Also a replay of the Jeffries-Johnson fight with Roberts/Jeffries winning this one, if only in Jack’s dreams.

     Thus the anguish of the loss surfaces three years after.  Now, that the two events, the Titanic and fight get confused in this shuddering defeat of Euroamerica is interestingly made evident in the song Jack Johnson and the Titanic.  In the song Jack Johnson goes down to the steamship line in England to buy passage for his White wife and himself.  He is told that no Black Folks are allowed on the Titanic.  As some sort of divine punishment for refusing him the Great Ship sinks.

     Obviously Jack Johnson couldn’t have been refused as in 1912 he was still in Chicago fighting to stay out of jail.  But the two White disasters became mingled in imagination.

     While London  was wrestling with the Johnson Affair in Valley Of The Moon, Burroughs was doing the same in his Mucker.   One wonders what a further seach of popular literature would reveal.

     In The Mucker Burroughs has gotten Byrne back in New York City.  Broke and with no means of a livelihood the big man-beast turns to the only thing he can do which is boxing.  While London, who had witnessed the fight essentially retold it in Valley Of The Moon, Burroughs who didn’t prepares Byrne to redeem the Whites by fighting and defeating the Big Smoke.  Burroughs doesn’t mention Johnson by name.  He uses Big Smoke, big dinge.

     Burroughs immediately places Byrne in the role of the next hope.    At the time these Whtie boxers were known only as hopes, the term Great White Hope in the completely derogatory sense evolved later.  Like London Burroughs minces no words about Jim Jeffries being his favoirte.  Not only does Byrne imitate Jeffries by fighting from a crouch but ‘Professor’ Cassidy his trainer says:

For a few minutes Billy Byrne played with his man, hitting him when and where he would.  He fought, crouching, just as Jeffries used to fight, and in his size and strength, was much that reminded Cassidy of the fallen idol that in his heart of hearts he still worshipped.

     Winning the fight Byrne went on to meet the #1 contender who he handily defeated.  Having evoked the ghost of Jim Jeffries Burroughs brings in his other hero, Gentleman Jim Corbett.

     The following morning the sporting sheets hailed “Sailor Byrne” ( tribute to Jack London whose hobo moniker was Sailor Jack) as the greatest white hope of them all.  Flashlights of him filled a quarter of a page.  There were interviews with him.  Interviews of the man he had defeated.  Interviews with Cassidy.  Interviews with the referee.  interviews with everybody, and all were agreed that he was the most likely heavy since Jeffries.  Corbett admitted that, while in his prime, he could doubtless have bested the new wonder, he would have found him a tough customer.

     Jeffries, Corbett, Byrne, a combination with so much magic in the names couldn’t help but win back the title to salve the wounded pride of the White species.

     Cassidy wired a challenge to the Negro’s manager, and received an answer that was most favorable.  The terms were, as usual, rather one sided but Cassidy accepted them, and it seemed before noon that the fight was assured.

     Assured in dreams, of course, as this is only a novel.

     It would be quite easy to pass over this part of the tale without realizing its significance but it shows the pain and suffering, the loss of pride that occurred when the championship went Black.  While Burroughs has no difficulty invoking the names of the fallen idol, Jeffries and Corbett, he cannot bring himself to name Johnson referring to him only as The Big Smoke, the big dinge, or the Negro.  The White world was in a deal of pain.

     One can only guess how Burroughs intended to resolve his dilemma of having the fictional Byrne fight the living Johnson or perhaps the story was only a magic incantation to arouse the true hope.  At any event when Byrne next appears in story in 1916’s Out There Somewhere, Jess Willard had already taken the championship back although under dubious circumstances.  By 1916 Byrne’s boxing career is forgotten; there is no mention of it in the sequel.

     Having solved the problem of the championship Burroughs returns to his Anima problem in the romance with Barbara Harding.  Billy remembers she lives in New York City and decides to call on her.  But…

…a single lifetime is far too short for a man to cover the distance from Grand Avenue to Riverside Drive…

     While the above words were spoken about Billy,  Byrne too came to the same conclusion:

     But some strange influence had seemed suddenly to come to work upon him.  Even in the brief moment of his entrance into the magnificence of Anthony Harding’s home he had felt a strange little stricture in the throat- a choking, a half-suffocating sensation.

     The attitude of the servant, the spendor of the furniture, the stateliness of the great hall and the apartments opening upon it- all had whispered to him that he did not “belong.”

     So Byrne feeling his inability to fit in walks away in bitter pride forswearing his love for Barbara Harding.  Still, he could remember her saying back on that other Manhattan Island:

I love you Billy for what you are.

     Thus the epic of the low brow Billy ends as he walks down the street a study of dejection with Barbara’s words ringing through his mind.

     The question here is how much the relationship between Byrne and Barbara is a ‘highly fictionalized’ account of ERB’s own relationship with Emma.  We can’t know for sure how hurt Burroughs may have been by Emma’s calling him a low brow.  Perhaps he longed to hear her say:  I love you, Ed, just the way you are.

     Certainly the stories enveloped by The Girl From Faris’s all deal with his relationship with Emma as his Anima ideal.  The Mad King which follows this story details the problems of the hero getting on the same wave length with the Princess Emma.  He even uses his wife’s real name.  The following title – The Eternal Lover – speaks for itself, Beasts Of Tarzan features a wild chase with Tarzan trying to find Jane who is lost in the jungle, while the last of the series, The Lad And The Lion, details the troubles of the Lad finding his desert princess.  After the Lad he got past his mental block being able to close The Girl From Faris’s.

     So if these stories are read consecutively they record the struggle going on in ERB’s mind to reconcile Emma to his Anima ideal and his Anima to his Animus.  This is a task for not any but the most dedicated Burroughs scholar but I would interested in learning the opinion of any who might attempt it.

     Read only Book One of Mad King and the first part, Nu Of The Neocene, of Eternal Lover in this context.

 

     Ten years later ERB tackled the problem from the high brow point of view in Marcia Of The Doorstep.

Go To Part Two

Background Of The Second Decade- Personal