WWII: The Greatest Crime Of The Ages

by

R.E. Prindle

German Must Perish! and The War Goal of World Plutocracy by Theodore Kaufman and Wolfgang Dieverge, reprint of the two 1941 editions by Ostara Publications, no date.

The history of the Second World War of 1939-45 is not as the orthodox version describes. That history has been molded and shaped to conform with the desires of some interested parties. In other words, it has been falsified. The skewed history is more than merely one of interpretation. Whole swaths of incidents have been suppressed, obscured or forced into a false narrative. While your attention has been directed to a certain narrative, the real story lies exposed like geological strata.

I offer concrete undeniable facts to bring your attention to what was really going on. The demonstration will focus on a book published in 1941 by one Theodore Nathan Kaufman. Kaufman was an operative of the American Jewish Committee, the AJC. For those not familiar with the AJC it is the directing governmental body of Jews in the United States. It is essentially an espionage unit spying on the American people dedicated to rooting out what they are pleased to call ‘anti-Semites.’ They were also behind the effort to lead the United States into the war with Germany. Their whole goal was to destroy Germany physically and to commit the genocide of 80 million Germans.

I know you are shocked and in total belief that 80 million people could be murdered but you shouldn’t be. After all, the Chinese autocrat Mao Ze Dong murdered thirty million or more of his fellow Chinese and the world said nothing. Not that much of stretch from 30 to 80 million.

Consider the facts: In 1933 the AJC executive, lawyer Samuel Untermyer declared irrevocable hatred of the Germans and war on the Germans. Then began a whole series of boycotts and sanctions against Germany from the United States, a nominally neutral country by law. This was done by its newly elected Democratic president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, FDR. FDR as he is familiarly known was in the pocket of the Jewish governing body, the American Jewish Committee.

There were six key nations fighting this proposed war: England, Russia, France, Germany, the United States and the Jewish Nation, the last spread out through Europe and the Americas. The Jewish Nation was very carefully screened so that there would be minimal appearance of their maximum role. They made themselves appear innocent victims while they stoked the fires of war.

We should be clear: there was no chance that Germany could win the war and this was against the combined might of the Soviet Union in the East and the United States to Germany’s West. Zero chance and this was recognized by the warmakers at the time.

We now get to Theodore Kaufman. Remember as he was writing his screed it was acknowledged that Germany could not win the war. At the time Germany Must Perish, Kaufman’s book, was published England, France and the USSR were one block. Germany Must Perish was published in March of 1941 before Germany had invaded the USSR and nine months before the US declared war on Germany. So neither the US or USSR was at war with Germany of the time of publication. Yet Kaufman was calling for the extermination of the Germany. By whom then?

The agitation for US entry was conducted by England, Roosevelt and the American Jewish people. England because it could not defend itself after being the first people to declare war on Germany in 1939. England, because the country could not defend itself needed the US to fight the war for them. England had neither the men nor the resources to even think of getting into the war on its own.

The Jewish Nation because the Jews wanted the whole German nation exterminated. Kaufman explains:

Today’s war is not a war against Hitler. Nor is it a war against the Nazis. It is a war of peoples against peoples…. This war is being waged by the German people. It is they who are responsible. It is they who must be made to pay for the war.

Remember that in 1933 the Jews declared war on Germany with no response from Germany.

So then, who is this Theodore Nathan Kaufman?

He was an AJC operative. He is portrayed in the US as an insignificant shopkeeper from the Jewish colony of Newark, New Jersey. A mere voice in the wilderness, perhaps a crazy Jewish prophet. But, as a crazy Jewish prophet he publishes from the remote Newark Jewish colony a screed like Germany Must Perish calling for their total erasure from the Earth. This book was not ignored, instead it was given maximum countrywide attention. No such crank would have had access to the President of the United States but Kaufman did, no penniless shop keeper from Newark can launch a multi-million dollar campaign to publicize his book. That just doesn’t happen. He was a member of the AJC and the AJC was spending millions and millions on espionage, publishing books by the score while Jewish attorneys were filing lawsuits on every side.

Now, these deeds, these books, these acts have at the very least been disregarded or obscured, if it were possible to erase such a public campaign all evidence would have been scrubbed. But, Kaufman and his book are inescapable evidence, not only fact, but concrete evidence of the activities of this Jewish Nation to draw the US and its resources into their, not the US’s, but their fight against the German people. The war was between the Jewish Nation and the German Nation with the Jews as the aggressors.

The American People had no dog in this war but the Jewish People as Kaufman said, did. What dog did Roosevelt have in the fight? Why was he anxious to sacrifice the lives of tens of thousands of men in the prime of their lives? Why was he so willing to strip America of its tremendous resources to badger a country that was no threat to the US? Forget all that today Europe, tomorrow the world stuff. Even if the Germans fancied it, had they conquered the whole of Europe including the Soviet Union, they would have been exhausted and unable to keep what they had. That’s right, the Germans would never have been a threat to the US.

The Soviet Union unaided and without immense US supplies would have defeated Germany, it might have taken longer but as Stalin knew when he declared: God is on the side of the big battalions. Germany could not have won the war. FDR certainly knew this. Why was he subservient to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics? No contradiction there. Because he was a socialist if not a Communist. His old World War I master, Woodrow Wilson was a socialist. FDR’s administration was a continuation of Wilson’s. FDR even faked the League of Nation under the name of the United Nations through thus completing Wilson’s heritage.

Ah, I hear voices saying, you can’t genocide eighty million people. The AJC and Kaufman thought you could. It was simple. You’ve heard of Eugenics haven’t you? Of course you have. Kaufman’s plan was simple. You simply sterilize all Germans of child bearing age and children. As Kaufman said, who was probably frightened by the word castration, sterilization doesn’t mean castration. Sterilization for men is a simple operation, a little more complex for women. I see no reason to examine the techniques of such a plan but if you have seen pictures of Germany bombed flat, Germans carving dwellings out the ruins, ‘honorable allied soldiers’, American soldiers, turning German women into prostitutes with Hershey bars, you will realize how easy it would have been. The plan only lacked will and it became within an ace of happening. By Americans.

The Jews of course were ready. The hitch came when Americans, less the Jews, were horrified at the notion. The plan had the tentative backing of FDR and it was only his death on the eve of the end of the war that blocked the plan.

If we remember Kaufman’s book was published in 1941 before Germany had invaded the Soviet Union or the US had entered the war. Kaufman’s was a pre-emptive plan. Thus the representatives of the Jewish Nation had the system of genocide in place, Total War, before the Final Solution of the German Jewish problem was put into effect.

The Germans naturally were aware of Kaufman’s book shortly after publication, so it follows that the Final Solution was a variant of what Kaufman called the Total Solution of the Jewish Nation’s German problem. Therefore, much of the Final Solution is mitigated by the Total Solution.

As to whether the whole Jewish People was responsible, Kaufman said that this was a war between peoples—the Jewish Nation versus the German Nation. The Jews initiated its Total War, the desired end of which would be the total extermination, genocide, of the German People, that is a holocaust. So, how can the German People be found guilty of attempting the genocide of the Jewish People except as an act of self-defense? The slaughter was of course terrible, but so was the murderous war against Germany. And that war was conducted with the full overwhelming power of the USSR and the USA against them. Fleets of nightly bombers from the West and relentless artillery barrages from the East. Germany had no chance of winning such a war; its doom was clear.

In March-April of 1941, then, the Germans learned of the Jewish menace. They were horrified. Copyright laws prevented the book from being published in Germany. For whatever reason the law abiding Germans honored the copyright law. The Germans were sticklers for the law and thus observed it refusing to print the book and alerting the German People of this threat from the Jewish People. This side of story has never been told.

However, the Germans did print reviews of the book using extensive quotations which were ‘legal’ under copyright laws. A pamphlet was published by the German government titled The War Goal of World Plutocracy by one Wolfgang Diewerge.

What Dieverge called the World Plutocracy meant the Jewish led coalition against Germany. The title failed to indicate the urgency of the real issue, that of the declared war of the Jewish Nation against the German Nation. Perhaps the Germans meant to implicate England, the US and Russia as well as the Jews which was a mistake. Four nations were involved but only three countries.

There is more than one legal system with its laws and customs involved here. On has the English and American variations of the Common Law, Soviet law, German law and Jewish law. Today all countries are using a variant of Jewish law. Under Jewish law the defendant is considered guilty and can only mitigate the charges. Thus we have the situation in the US today of the Judeo-Liberal party that alleges that the accused is guilty, or he or she wouldn’t be accused would they? Thus, the crime can only be resolved by accepting the guilt of being ‘wrong’ and accepting the judgment of the Party. Bear in mind that in this so-called democracy the Jewish-Liberal party isn’t even the majority. They are a minority that has appropriated the government regardless of who is president. Thus, it is false to think we live in a democracy when we live in a Jewish flavored theocracy.

2.

Given that the Jews can manage the writing of history and the dissemination on knowledge and control discussion of the narrative it should come as no surprise that the German side of the story is suppressed. The narrative is cast in the form of The Children Of Light vs. The Children Of Darkness. All right then resides with the former and all fault with the latter.

As it is clear that the Jews first broached the notion of genocide when they were managing the overwhelming power of the US and USSR it follows that to avoid a German holocaust that the Germans were justified in a pre-emptive Jewish holocaust. Both holocausts were to be managed in a scientific manner. Thus, the Germans have no more cause for guilt than the Jews.

As might be supposed, since the plan for German genocide was trumpeted loudly throughout America, free copies were sent to influential people, Time-Magazine gave an approving review, newspapers nationwide disseminated the plan in an approving manner. It should have been one of those things read with incredulity.

At the time the America First Committee was lobbying very actively, very actively, to prevent the US from entering another European war. The American public was decidedly against any involvement in the war. In March of ’41 a war with Japan seemed a remote possibility. Roosevelt touted democracy and freedom yet he disregarded the vast majority and put US soldiers on the front lines both in the Pacific and the Atlantic.

And then we have a Jewish appeal for a German holocaust. Without the US having yet no sinews of war, no will to war, what were the Jews thinking in making such a strange proclamation? As Charles Lindbergh pointed out in his Des Moines speech, the Jews were finagling the US into a criminal war against Germany. Forget any notion of a good war.

The Germans quickly obtained copies of the book or pamphlet that had been distributed to millions in the US with a copy sent free to every influential American. The Germans were aghast. Had the death of eighty million people ever been proclaimed before? By a nation that refused to call itself that publicly? Pretending to be Englishmen, Frenchmen, Russians, Americans, whatever. The disguise was total and the danger was real.

The Jewish government presented Kaufman as an anonymous loner, something like Lee Harvey Oswald who may have fired at President Kennedy. But was he? He was no fanatic rejected by World Jewry, no insane creature, but rather a leading and widely known Jewish figure in the United States.

The Germans published their answer to Kaufman in a pamphlet by Wolfgang Diewerge titled The War Goal of World Plutocracy. He did a little research and came up with this:

The Jewish president Kaufman is no anonymous loner, no fanatic rejected by World Jewry, no insane creature but rather a leader and widely-known Jewish figure in the United States.

Diewerge then says that Kaufman was a member of Roosevelt’s Brain Trust. I’ve never read that before but then one can’t be sure that orthodox histories are ‘definitive.’ Diewerge goes on:

He belongs to Roosevelt’s so-called “Brain Trust”, the staff of intellectuals and political advisors to the American President. This circle provides the material for the hateful speeches against National Socialist Germany that President Roosevelt like to give…

The half-Jewish mayor (mother was Jewish) of New York, La Guardia, along with Roosevelt’s close confidante and friend, Bernard Baruch (“the unofficial president of the USA) also belongs to this group, which maintains closest ties to the leading men of the Soviet Union.

Baruch wasn’t so much a confidante and friend of FDR as a Grey Eminence giving direction to FDR. As the war progressed and Kaufman’s proposal was tentatively accepted by Roosevelt, Kaufman’s plan was adapted by Secretary of the Treasury, the Jew Henry Morgenthau Jr. who did bill himself co-president with FDR. Thus while Baruch was actually co-president with Woodrow Wilson during WWI, Morgenthau filled that role with Roosevelt.

Diewerge goes on:

The book Germany Must Perish is the background music to the major policy deception that the leaders of the world plutocracy, President Roosevelt and his business partner in international warmongering, Winston Churchill, have launched to support their ally, Stalin.

That was an accurate description. Stalin, by the way, was the brilliant mastermind pulling the strings of Churchill, Roosevelt and, actually, Hitler. All three were duped by Stalin.

While Roosevelt preached Total War against the ‘aggressor nations’, unconditional surrender, while the US was neutral after a fashion, Diewerge gives the German side of who the aggressors were:

A digression is in order here. Who declared war on 3 September 1939? England and France used the local conflict over Dantzig and the Corridor, where justice was indisputedly on the side of Germany, to declare war on Germany and thus cause a world conflagration.

This was true. Germany saw itself as rectifying the injuries it endured by the one-sided Treaty of Versailles. It was also true as Diewerge was right when he next records:

And the United States has been trying to “get into the business” for months with repeated provocations. It prays daily for another “Lusitania” and regrets the case of the “Athenia” German attentiveness ruined their finely spun plans.

So, who were the aggressor nations? First in order is the Jewish Nation with its proclaimed war of peoples. Second was Stalin and the Third International, then Churchill and England and tied with Churchill was Roosevelt. The Versailles Treaty that was designed by England and France in 1918 guaranteed another war in twenty years as was recognized at the time and as it happened.

Now, as to the Jewish desire to exterminate the Germans, consider how the war was fought: there were actually two operations going on at the same time. One was the war of land battles fought with armies and one was merely a series of bombing raids to destroy German cities, that is Germany, bomb it out of existence and bombing civilians to kill racial Germans. In other words, aerial genocide.

During the war only the Anglo-American group had heavy bombers; the others had only tactical support bombers to support the ground troops. The English developed the Landcaster with the capability of carrying twenty-thousand pound bombs along with incendiaries. The Americans provided huge fleets of the smaller B-17s and then the bigger B-29s. In a one of a kind situation that won’t be seen again the huge flotillas of these behemoths dropping long strings of bombs, you’ve seen this in movies, with no other purpose than killing civilian Germans and destroying Germany.

The crowning achievement was Churchill’s decision to bomb the city of Dresden which at that time was packed with German people, women and children, displaced by the war. Purely murderous. There was no war industry there and not a single anti-aircraft gun. Flotillas of bombers flying over low unloading everything from ten ton blockbusters to scads of incendiaries creating a fire storm. This was purely a raid against unarmed civilians. A holocaust pure and simple. And if one horror wasn’t enough, they came back the next day to bomb the ruins.

As will be remembered, Kaufman and the AJC said that this was a war against a people- the Jews vs. the Germans. Certainly the terrific bombing campaigns leveling German cities and killing millions was no less a crime than the Germans killing their avowed Jewish enemies in extermination camps like Auschwitz. One might say tit for tat. Also remember that the English was the aggressor, declaring war first. Also, the bombing began long before the death camps were put into operation so one cannot say that the camps were not retaliatory.

Dresden was not like the end of horrors for the Germans but merely the beginning. While the English and Americas were bombing the hell out of the civilians, the Eastern front against the Germans had been collapsing in an orderly fashion but tens of thousands of German troops had been captured and were never seen alive again. They died in the Gulags where the camp commandants were with one exception were Jewish.

Once again, the fate of the German immigrants in Russia had little or nothing to do with the war. Prior to the unification of the Germans under Bismarck, the Russian Czars had invited German colonists to settle in the Ukraine and the Volga Delta. Always orderly and industrious the Germans prospered farming the Ukraine making that underpopulated desert bloom. The contrast between the Jewish, the Russian and the German farmers was sharp and distinct. Germans quickly moved to prominence in the government.

Then, when Germany consolidated all the petty principalities that the West found amusing, into a unified State, and began functioning on modern Western methods they became a threat being more capable than the English and French, while the Czars began to view their German citizens although thoroughly Russified as a potential Fifth Column and persecuted them. Thus German hatred began to grow. Disabilities were placed on the Ukrainian and Volga Germans. They were discriminated against. When the Soviets replaced the Russians and Stalin replaced Lenin, the former minister of minorities collected the Volga Germans en masse and sent them to Siberia for extermination. Thus, combined against the Germans in WWII were the Soviets in the East and Americans in the West and the Jewish Nation distributed throughout in influential, directing positions. If you think the Germans could not see what was going on you should question your analytical abilities. Actually, Germany was fighting for survival.

As the Soviet armies breached the German border, the ever clever Stalin who had thought this moment out thoroughly drove the civilian German population before him. This horrific rout is described as a population transfer by orthodox historians. One must question their analytical abilities. The East Germans then murdered and raped by the advance troops were driven pell mell westward in the depths of winter.

The entire East German population of twelve to fifteen million people were displaced in a moment, driven West. Such intense and concentrated suffering had never been seen in the world and this includes the child’s play of Auschwitz.

The Soviet armies consisted of primitives who had never seen a wrist watch before and were entranced. They had never tasted real wine. They had never had their way with beautiful White women. Now they tortured and raped to their hearts’ content. Women were gang raped like the flotillas that bombed Dresden. You have to be heartless not to understand and sympathize. Auschwitz? Phooey!

In the dead of winter, ill clad and ill fed, at risk every moment these millions upon millions of wretched people fled just in advance of the total destruction of their destination. They arrived in Berlin just in time for the most fearful artillery bombardment ever. The Soviets made up for their lack of bombers with terrific and devastating artillery bombardments. Now remember, the Soviets had only been enabled with these abilities because Roosevelt stripped America of its resources and was supplying Russia with the sinews of war. Thus the Americans. In effect, were giving it to the Germans both East and West, materially.

Berlin was completely destroyed blown into bits of rubble. That anyone survived this terrible onslaught both from the air and from the land is a miracle

Now, I was brought up to believe that American soldiers where saints who though brave were never brutal. And I believed what I had been told. I didn’t question the propaganda. And then, my elders made a mistake- they taught me how to read. And I resent how terribly I was misled.

The Americans were hardly less brutal than the Soviets under the direction of Dwight David Eisenhower.

Kaufman said that the war had nothing to do with Hitler but that it was a war between the Jewish and German peoples. As such the shooting war ended in 1945; the war of the Jewish people on the German people didn’t.

The Americans and Soviets drove the Germans down but now the Jewish people wanted to finish the job, enforce their plan. As the Anglo-American and Soviet troops entered Germany for the Jews then, don’t forget Dresden, the horrible truth of the extermination camps was revealed. The Jews were appalled and now in power over the Germans could get on with exterminating them. But there was a hitch, Roosevelt died.

In the US the Kaufman Plan had morphed into the Morgenthau Plan of the Secretary of State, Henry Morgenthau Jr. Roosevelt would have carried out the plan except that he passed in April of ’45 a month before the shooting war ended. His replacement, Vice President Harry S. Truman was completely ignorant of the plans of the FDR cabal. Truman entered office with no knowledge of the State of the Union. Even though FDR was sitting with his feet dangling in the grave he didn’t think it expedient to inform his obvious successor of the state of affairs. Did he think that his cabal was so evil that Truman would be repulsed? Let me put it this way, Truman was repulsed when he learned what was going on. Among other things on his mind was his discovery of the Manhattan Project and its Atom Bomb. Blindsided by Rooseveltian politics.

However Truman was not so sympathetic to Jewish machinations as FDR had been. Thus their power was broken. As members of what might be called FDR’s shadow government they faded away. Samuel Rosenman, perhaps the closest to FDR no longer had any place in DC. Sidney Hillman was gone. Henry Morgenthau himself tendered his resignation unable to work with Truman. Truman gladly accepted it. The tyranny of FDR fairly quickly evaporated. A weight was lifted from the American people. Don’t think there wasn’t rejoicing either.

While Truman was being quickly briefed on the actual state of affairs, the mopping up operations in German continued more or less according to the Kaufman/Morgenthau Plan. The Supreme Commander in Europe was Dwight D. Eisenhower. His advisor and confidant was Bernard Baruch, a man who wanted to be the greatest Jew of all time, and who was, indeed, a very large ranking member of the Jewish World Government.

As mentioned, he had actually been co-president with Woodrow Wilson during what could now be called WWI. He had meddled with Republican politics during the interim of 1921-33 and came into power again with the Roosevelt Administration in 1933. Diewerge described him as co-president with FDR which is not exactly true but may have seemed so to outside observers. The relationship was more adversarial, but face to face Baruch was able to intimidate FDR.

Dwight Eisenhower had been disciple of Baruch’s for twenty-five years. Eisenhower considered him the wisest man alive. There was a tremendous furor at the time as to how to treat the Germans. The Jewish faction wanted to dismember the German State completely parceling out the German territories to the surrounding countries. The dividing of Germany into Allied administrative units perpetually occupied was decided upon. The German people were to be kept impoverished and starved to death with no relief.

Eisenhower had under his control several German armies. Although the shooting war was over and there was absolutely no chance of Germany conducting any resistance these men were not released nor, were they treated humanely according the Geneva conventions. Eisenhower mean to destroy as many as he could. Remember that Bernard Baruch had direct connections to him and wanted to further the murder of the Germans. Hence Eisenhower unilaterally declassified them as soldiers and reclassified them as enemy combatants who were not covered by the Geneva Conventions. The men were crowded together in open fields with no covering and no amenities, ill clothed and ill fed. Civilians were forbidden on pain of death for comforting them in anyway. Women trying to pass food through the barbed wire were shot down without compunction.

Nor did this criminal conduct end quickly but was continued until 1950 when the Americans, England and France realized that they needed a buffer state between themselves and the Soviet Union. And so, the war in the West came to its grudging end. The Soviets were much more brutal, so much so that there was a continuing drain from the East German Sector of the USSR as Germans fled to the West necessitating the building of the Berlin wall.

As may easily be seen the orthodox version, the academic version, of the period is so distorted as to be a fantasy of the reality. The root of the war as per Kaufman’s plan was the Jewish Nation’s hatred of the German Nation. That hatred went back many centuries and was fully developed. Having essentially captured the US, England and USSR governments the Jewish Nation was able to direct their energies toward a Total Solution of their German Problem which was the total genocide of the German people. WWII was the greatest crime ever perpetrated.

All this has been obscured and ignored and hidden if not nearly erased. The world is so conditioned to view the period from the Jewish point of view that they find the truth incomprehensible. To expose that truth is to expose one’s self to many hazards. Many such people now have permanent homes in prisons. Laws in nearly all countries have been passed to make even the objective discussion of the period a criminal offence, France and Germany being the worst offenders with England close behind. They must protect their narrative at all costs.

And so, nearly a hundred years after the war goes on unabated. Circumstances have changed but the situation hasn’t.

Pt. VII: Time Traveling With R.E. Prindle

by

R.E. Prindle

GWMReynolds

Would to God your horizon may broaden every day.

The people who bind themselves to systems are those who are unable to encompass the whole truth and try to catch it by the tail; as system is like the tail of truth, but truth is like a lizard, it leaves its tail in your fingers and runs away knowing full well that it will grow a new tail in a twinkling.

Ilya Turgenev as quoted by

Daniel Boorstin

The doctrine that correlates imply one another, that the father cannot be thought of without thinking of a child and that there can be no consciousness of a superior without consciousness of an inferior—has for one of its common examples the necessary connexion between the conception of whole and part. Beyond the primary truth that no idea of a part can be framed without a nascent idea of some whole to which it belongs, there is the secondary truth that there can be no correct idea of a part without a correct idea of the correlative whole. There are several ways in which inadequate knowledge of the one involves inadequate knowledge of the other.

Herbert Spencer

The Principles of Ethics

To understand a serious author like Reynolds it is necessary to place him in his context. Reynolds’ interest seems to be all Europe in its widest breadth and length and depth. By depth I mean its timeline. Ancient literatures line out what they consider their maximum territory. Thus the Greek story of the Argonautica travels East along the North of Anatolia to Armenia. Armenia then seems to be the dispersal point of Hellenes or Greeks. The line then runs West across the South coast of present day Russia, up the Danube into the Alps, beyond which the Hyperboreans live, and down the Adriatic side of the Balkans, the heel of Italy, across the Mediterranean to Include Libya and back around Crete to Greece proper. Something is being said.

The Novels of Reynolds do exactly the same thing including Armenia. His home base of England and London reflecting his personal history. His timelines slip up and down if less recognizably to the casual observer. The key topic running through the novels is the relationship of men to women. The big issue is that of Libertinage- specifically as codified by the Marquis de Sade.

While I have yet to find a reference to Dashwood’s Hell Fire Club the activities of the Regent, George IV epitomize the philosophy of the Hell Fire clubs in their motto, Do What Thou Wilt. It should be noted that these clubs and the philosophy predate the Marquis de Sade.

George_IV_

George IV In Full Regalia

The antecedents of the Hell Fire Clubs lead to the Jeffrey Epstein club of the twenty-first century as it is descended from the Hell Fire clubs of eighteenth century England. In Hollywood of mid-twentieth century the actor Errol Flynn led such a club there.

The problem rises much earlier than the Catholic Church with its rather strange sexual practices but by the fifteenth century the challenge to the Church’s sex notions was becoming acute. Hence societies such as the Free Spirits arose. Thus, bands of Free Spirits burst into nunneries and dragged the nuns out in a furious mode, raping them and demanding that they engage in free sex with any man at any time.

The later Anabaptists had very similar attitudes toward sex while the Libertines of the eighteenth century down to the current times are of the same opinion. Women’s Liberation is all about altering their sexual attitudes toward free sex. The gathering place for Libertines for centuries has been Bohemia. Hence the expression ‘marriage a la Boheme,’ which is to say a ‘union of hearts’ only. There is no commitment on the man’s part except convenience. The well-kept secret of Women’s Liberation is that women are encouraged to engage in free sex with any man at any time. This is what Women’s Lib is all about.

Reynolds attacks that problem directly usually falling, I think on the side of Libertinism.

As all experienced Time Travelers know, in our lifetimes as we inch along from year to year we are actually travelling through time. Today, myself at eighty-two, I have seen so many impossible changes as to be incredible. Mores between 1948 when I became aware and 2020 where I am today have changed by 180 degrees. What was true in 1948 no longer applies. Change after change. Whole industries have disappeared and new ones risen. The once ubiquitous savings and loan industry was completely looted and discarded, disappearing in the 1980s. That crime is still incredible to me.

The immense travel industry inaugurated by the Boeing 707 in 1959 has become so ubiquitous while being daily increased by the billions of Asians that tourist destinations can no longer handle the crowds. Sites are being destroyed by tramping feet of the hordes of gawkers. Whole cities contained in giant cruise ships are delivered to tourist spots in a single hour. In the not too distant future visitor permits will have to be issued limiting the number of tourists to specific time spots.

So with Reynolds in his time. By 1859 when his novelistic career essentially terminates it was a different England from 1844 when he successfully launched himself as a novelist. Eighteen forty-four was a significantly different England than the Regency period and kingship of George IV. And in 1859 when Darwin’s Origin of Species was issued changes began to come too rapidly to be absorbed and diffused before new changes made the previous changes obsolete. The rate of change was commemorated by Washington Irving in his story of Rip Van Winkle. In 1903 the Wright Brothers completed the impossible dream by lifting off in a heavier than air craft.

The very changes rapidly occurring may have brought Reynolds’ career to the end by 1858-60. His novels would no longer have represented contemporary life. It is perhaps no coincidence that his last few novels dipped into the historical past.

He continued his newspaper work until his death and, indeed, his newspaper survived him by almost a century, longer that his novels did. I have vague memories of being encouraged to read the paper to prevent its going out of business when I was in San Francisco in the 1960s. But, what could that have meant to me? I had no idea of its significance.

Beau Brummel

The Beau w/Cravat

In 1848 Reynolds began his magnum opus, The Mysteries of the Court of London, attacking the British monarchy. This book, or two series of books, is actually a historical novel built around George IV. The first series takes place in 1794-95 and the second series during the Regency in 1814-1, thus actually a historical novel. In 1820 George’s father, George III, died; George took the throne and would die ten years later in 1830.

George Reynolds was born in 1814 while spending six of his first eight years on the island of Guernsey. He may never have heard of George IV until 1822 when he returned to England. How much he may have thought of George IV in the next eight years from eight to the age of sixteen it couldn’t have been much. Certainly not enough to give him his bone deep hatred of the Prince that he displays in the Court of London, in which George is the central figure.

Related to George is the aristocracy that Reynolds also hated, hated to the point of slander and defamation. His ire went far deeper than mere exposure. From 1848 to 1856 over which time the massive five thousand page novel was written there were a large number of people still alive that had lived through the Regency and kingship of George IV. The Regency began in 1811 when George’s father was declared mentally incompetent to rule.

Memories of others differ substantially from the George that Reynolds portrays. For instance a Capt. Jessie in his 1844 biography of George ‘Beau’ Brummel, an intimate of the Regent, says that ‘in spite of the opinion retailed by a modern novelist, that “in the zenith of his popularity and personal advantages he seemed positively vulgar by the side of the Count d’ Artois,” was allowed by his greatest admirers to be the most distinguished looking man of the day.’

I have no doubt that Capt. Jessie was referring to Reynolds as the modern novelist. Compare Reynolds’ opinion by this painting of George in his prime and Reynolds’ opinion seems highly prejudiced. True George became obese as he sped his course but in his prime he seems to have been quite the beau.

In his antipathy to the monarchical system Reynolds was all but beating a dead horse. By the time he began his effective career in 1844, Victoria, who he despises as a mere girl, was queen and the monarchy had been neutered becoming a mere symbol as all effective power passed to the House of Commons. So, his actually scurrilous biographical novel of George IV in the Mysteries of the Court of London merely commemorated his life.

Of course in 1848-52 of the First Series of Court perhaps the state of the monarchy wasn’t that clear but England cherished the institution so that the French system wasn’t to occur in England even though Reynolds wished it. Even the nobility were never physically endangered but as the role of Commons dominated it the House of Lords was reduced to a mere debating society. And, while the Reform Act of 1832 imprinted society’s growing understanding of the consequences of the Industrial Revolution it wasn’t fast enough for the revolutionaries with their pie in the sky utopian notions. The first really effective and successful attempt to ameliorate the conditions of unskilled labor would occur in 1914 when Henry Ford in the US courageously tackled the problem offering a living wage to the unskilled lumpenproletariat along with sanitary working conditions.

Responding to the successfully met revolution of 1848, never try the same joke three times running. In response in 1851 England presented the world with its Crystal Palace Exhibition of all the technological and scientific wonders achieved by scientists and industrialists which were going far to ameliorate the living conditions of the hoi polloi while increasing wealth.
Reynolds sniffs at the Exhibition in vol. I of the second series of Court of London, not exactly wishing the Prince Albert ill in his enterprise but snidely nevertheless. He knew its import.

Change was in the air and while not so rapid as the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as Reynolds was busy blasting the monarchy and aristocracy of 1795 to 1820 the world was moving forward and slipping beneath his feet. This was surely epitomized by Exhibition of 1851. Surely Reynolds visited the Exhibition more than one time and one wonders how it affected him. While one can pinpoint when changes occurred it is more difficult to understand how and when those changes were diffused among the whole population. There were certainly early adapters even then but as a novelist it is difficult to dwell on them before they had time to affect the mores of the civilization. One can’t be too far ahead of one’s readership.

On the other hand Reynolds’ responded immediately to the Crimean War of 1853-56 with his novel Omar of 1855-56, but then the war was easy to understand.

Technologically Reynolds does introduce mentions of the railroad and telegraphy. He marvels at the wonder of electricity which he understood as an actual fluid. Most astonishing to him was the introduction of the steamship or packets as they were called. These amazing ships were the product of the mind of an engineer by the name of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Reynolds wrote his penultimate novel of his first period about the ships titled The Steam Packet.

Who was Isambard Brunel and what was his importance? The writer of the Wikipedia article says this:

Isambard Kingdom Brunel; 1806-1859, was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered “one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history”, “one of the 19th-century engineering giants”, and “ one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, [who] changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions”. Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionized public transport and modern engineering.

So, in 1859 when Brunel died he left a different England behind. In 1839 he built the first transatlantic steamship, The Great Western. It was a metal reinforced wooden vessel driven with paddle wheels and sails. It was to that point the most magnificent ship ever built. It must have fired Reynolds’ imagination. He set to work a year later in 1840 producing his novel The Steam Packet. There were of course smaller steamships or packets plying the European trade. Reynolds produced an enthusiastic encomium of the vast numbers of ships gathered in the Thames Pool. A regular timewarp of the doomed sail and upcoming steamship laying side by side. Standing on London Bridge and watching this inspiring theme he imagined a trip down the Thames visiting the Cinq Ports of Kent, and the French Channel ports. He created an imaginary club called the Luminaries, a bunch of enlightened illuminated fellows to charter a ship. In 1865 Reynolds tried to make such a voyage a reality. On his company’s annual outing he tried to charter a steamer to take his employees to Herne Bay in Kent but he was unable to find a ship to charter, probably for political reasons.

As the Wikipedia article indicates Brunel spent the twenty years between 1839 and 1859 building ships and railroads. In 1853 he built the SS Great Britain an all metal ship that was the first driven by a screw and no paddle wheels. In 1859 as he died he built the Great Eastern. Eighteen fifty-nine was also the year that Reynolds essentially ended his novelistic career. Perhaps he was wise as time had passed him by, there wasn’t much nasty he could say about the girl Queen Elizabeth while politics had entered a new era in which his literary attitude was not quite relevant.

A part of the July Revolution in France in 1830 that had a profound effect on England seems to have passed him by. Napoleon in the 1790s had emancipated the Jews who then began their political rise as a nation. It is a mistake not to consider the Jews a nation with national aspirations, distributed throughout Europe, working in concert to their own agenda. Thus in 1830 the Jews were politically potent in all countries.

Now, for centuries, since 1492 and the expulsion from Spain the Moslems of the Mediterranean littoral had been plundering the Southern coasts of Europe both robbing, destroying localities and carrying off Europeans to enslave them in Algeria and other places. Europeans had not acted to stop this but in 1830 France did, destroying the corsair power and annexing Algeria as a French colony, actually considering it a department of France.

The Jews had always been a subordinated nation in Algeria. But, as an important figure of the July Revolution the Jewish lawyer, Adolphe Cremieux, inserted a clause making the Jews of Algeria French citizens so that they catapulted to power over their former masters, the Moslems. This would have consequences. Of course France had colonies to the South of the Sahara and now to administer the Sahara they created that immortal band of misfits, The French Foreign Legion. Thus the North African desert area was opened to Europeans and the English. The English took to the desert like ducks to water, no pun intended. The Sahara became one of Europe’s playgrounds. Dangerous but fun.

Within short order series of novels placing Englishmen in the desert began to pour out including Ouida’s famous Under Two Flags, Robert Hitchins great Garden Of Allah, Mrs. Hull, and P.C. Wren. The twentieth century would see Algiers fill with English drug addicts and homosexuals. Very amazing. At one moment the Moslems were raiding Europe and the next France had its foot on their necks. In a twinkling so it appears.

Amazing. Adolphe Cremieux would go on to figure importantly in the Revolution of 1848 and the resistance to Napoleon III, behind the Paris Commune of 1871 and be instrumental in the writing of Maurice Joly’s Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu that was supposed to be the matrix for the Protocols of the Elders of Zion written in Vienna in 1897 during the Zionist convention. The Protocols had no importance until 1917 when they were promoted as a defensive measure to discredit critics of Jewish participation in the 1917 Revolution. But few could see the consequences of what was so deeply concealed in the annexation of Algeria by a seemingly insignificant people. But, if you look closely….

I hesitate to introduce this next section because I’m sure you have never heard of it and hence you probably may find it too far fetched. You’ll be skeptical. Nevertheless there are subterranean streams. I’m sure that you have heard of the psychologist Carl Jung’s notion of the collective unconscious. I am not a believer in the notion but still life’s situations present themselves to all peoples and are interpreted by them. At the same once the problems are denominated they are thought of and examined down through the generations until they become the common property of initiates and/or investigators. The zodiac is one of those things, for instance. The zodiac which was merely an ancient timekeeping device to keep track of where you were between Dec. 21st-25th of one year and the next. Stonehenge for instance was very probably a representation of the Zodiac denoting the various key points of the year.

A great mythology was built up about those key points. For instance Castor and Pollux, Helen and Clytemnestra are legends of the solstices and equinoxes. Castor is the winter solstice and Pollux the summer. Helen the spring equinox and Clytemnestra the autumn. Hence Helen is the beautiful spring and Clytemnestra is the obnoxious precursor of winter.

The ancient religions had the motto: As above, so below. As there was a twelve month Zodiacal calendar on Earth so there must be a twelve month celestial calendar above. Thus, the Zodiac was translated to the sky. Just as the terrestrial Zodiac denoted the weather conditions prevalent during each month so, once the Great Year was discovered so weather conditions were apportioned to the Great Year. The Great year was caused when the Plane of the Ecliptic came into existence and a cycle of 25,900 years ensued.

Each Age was therefore 2000 some years long. I’m sure you know the signs of the Zodiac. The transitions from Age to Age were always fraught with terrific consequences because the ancients believed in the Zodiac. Now, the year O of the Christian calendar was also the transition from the Age of Aries to the Age of Pisces.

To properly understand the mass suicide of the Jews on the mountain fortress of Masada one has to understand that a new Age was beginning and those Jews sincerely believed that if they died they would be revived in a matter of days. Obviously it was a mistaken belief. Jesus was talking about immediate results not those of a far distant Age.

The symbol for Pisces was the two fish connected by an umbilical cord while swimming in opposite directions. Carl Jung sat and pondered this long and hard. He was a student of this submerged consciousness that he called the Collective Unconscious. He then noted that about the year 1000 AD the archetypes for the Age began to change. While Christ remained the male archetype, the female archetype, the fish swimming in the opposite direction assumed prominence over the male archetype. Thus, in the Catholic Church the Virgin Mary, the Great Mother, became the focus of worship over that of Christ. However, inr the North of Europe, the Nordics rejected the Great Mother as the female archetype choosing rather to adopt that of, in the Greek world, Artemis, who was called Diana in the Roman dispensation. Thus while the archetypes were Mary/Jesus in the South of Europe, in the North they became Jesus and Artemis-Diana. Artemis was known as the Mistress of the Animals, the huntress, the virgin goddess. She transcended Jesus. The last thousand years then have been dominated by the female archetype of the Age of Pisces. We are now on the cusp of the Age of Aquarius hence the archetypes will change appropriate to that Age. The Green Man will be the male archetype; I’m not aware of the who the female archetype will be.

So, the initiates are aware of this and George W.M. Reynolds was an Illuminated initiate. He knew about Diana, hence in the two Mysteries stories if you are reading attentively, you will notice the prominence of the name Diana. It is most prominent in the story of Lady Diana Lade and Tim Meagles in the Court of London. I am not an initiate or Illuminated in the religious sense, I am merely an independent historical scholar. I come by my understanding through study.

You may want a couple illustrations that demonstrate my point. They are readily available in plain sight. For those of you who are familiar with the Arthurian Cycle you will remember the story of Vivian or Nemue and Merlin the Magician. Merlin can be designated Jesus/Merlin and Vivian, Vivian/Diana. In the cycle that was written about mid-Age you will recall that Merlin was the wisest man of all and he was associated with Blaise to whom he related his adventures to compose for posterity. Merlin as a male represents the first half of the Age when the male was dominant. Thus the young and beauteous Vivian makes up to the doddering old Merlin and flatters his masculine drive. She wheedles his magical secrets from him then turning on the charm, placing his head in her lap, as it were, she wheedles the great secret from him which he knew better than to tell her but…love, love, love.

Having the secret she then says the magic words and imprisons Merlin in the earth, Mother Earth, the feminine, that is. He’s still there, obviously. Thus Diana assumed prominence as the female archetype of Pisces in the North.

Now, here’s where it gets kind of spooky. About the turn of twentieth century as the Age of Aquarius got nearer, rumblings began to appear premonitory of the transition. Then, in 1920 an Englishwoman by the name of Mrs. Hull published her novel, The Sheik. The same Sheik that made Rudolf Valentino famous. In this novel the huntress, as Diana was called, who had been brought up as a boy by her father, was visiting the English watering hole in the desert, Biskra, in Algeria. There was a railway from the coast about 115 miles long to Biskra which is on the verge of the Sahara. We now have Diana coupled with the English fascination with the desert.

That fascination may perhaps be best described by the Saharan explorer Byron Khun De Prorok in his Mysterious Sahara. Mrs. Hull who had actually been in Algeria makes an attempt. In her story Diana is the haughty male despising huntress who is about to make a crossing of the desert from Biskra to Oran unescorted. The Sheik, ostensibly an Arab and a Moslem sees her about town and decides to abduct her, which to make a longer story short, he does. Now, he has to tame Diana, this is interesting, he rapes her night after night until her spirit is broken. In the course of the story she assumes the subordinate role to the male. This is a strange story. Naturally the Sheik turns out to be not Arab but half English and half Portuguese more or less giving the English a claim to the Sahara but creating a weird relationship between England and the Moslems that now appears to be manifesting itself in reverse. If Mrs. Hull was an initiate and that isn’t unlikely then possibly she is, or was, preparing the way for the coming Aquarian Age when a new female archetype will be needed. That’s about as far as my researches have taken me so far. It will be noted however that in Reynold’s story Lady Diana Lade, who wears men’s clothes and is repeatedly denominated the huntress marries Tim Meagles who has become a Marquis, hence noble and a fitting mate for the princessly Diana. One may compare that with Mrs. Hull’s story.

As I say, this tremendous story runs underground like the above ground Nile. However the traditions of the Zodiac are transmitted, they are being transmitted.

But, back to Reynolds and his story of the Steam Packet and its place in his corpus. The story was written and published in ten parts at one shilling each before the last novel of his first period Master Timothy’s Bookcase which was published in 1942. The edition I have, reissued by Gyan Press of India, is all ten parts bound and published together originally in 1844 with an ad for Master Timothy on the back cover. Each of the installments was priced at one shilling, twelve pence. Master Timothy was advertised by the publisher W. Emans for sixteen shillings. Apparently the public rejected Reynolds at very high prices compared to a penny. Perhaps Reynolds despaired of success after both titles failed. The advertisement for Master Timothy sounds like a plea to the reader. Very interesting, I reproduce it here.

“We have frequently had occasion to speak favourably of the writing of this author; and we see no reason in the work before us for changing that opinion. Part I. of ‘Master Timothy’s Bookcase’ contains forty pages of letter-press and two beautiful steel engravings, and is sold at the usual price of one shilling. At that rate it is decidedly one of the cheapest works of the day; and its intrinsic merits will doubtless aid not a little in procuring for it an adequate share of the public patronage. The design of the tale is singular; the hero, Sir Edmund Mortimer, becomes possessed of a magic bookcase, which reveals to him all the secrets and mysteries of human life. The chief aim of Mr. Reynolds in this work seems to be to involve his hero in a series of doubts and mystifications; and when his curiosity and suspense are worked up to the highest pitch, he appeals to the book-case, and the truth is immediately made apparent. That which as first sight appeared virtuous, turns out to be vicious; seeming injustice proves to be justice; and every thing turns out in a contrary manner from what either the hero or the reader of the tale anticipate. We are told in the Preface that ‘one of the principal aims of the author, is to illustrate the truth of the ancient aphorism that we should never trust to appearances.’ The interest of the reader is most acutely excited; and he must lay down the first Part with a wish to become acquainted with the next. We perceive by the Preface, that in the course of forthcoming Parts the story of Madame Lafarge and the historical subject of the Man with the Iron Mask are to form episodes in the tale. The plot is ingenious and original; for, although, from the title, the reader might imagine that it is an imitation of ‘Master Humphrey’s Clock,’ we can vouch that no similitude of design is apparent in the tale before us.” –Dispatch, July 4th, 1841.

The reader would certainly be justified in thinking that the title refers to Dickens’ Master Humphrey and as the book ends with a story about Mr. Pickwick it would seem he was justified. Perhaps Reynolds did despair as both The Steam Packet and Master Timothy seem to lean on Dickens for a sense of direction. He seems to be a parasite of Dickens.

To move ahead a bit to 1844 when Reynolds began Mysteries of London for the publishers Stiff and Vickers. At the end of the Second Series of Mysteries of London in 1848 Stiff and Vickers say that they own The Mysteries of London and imply that Reynolds can no longer use the title. Indeed, they found another writer, Miller, to write, I assume, for hire to continue the series.

One wonders then whether Stiff and Vickers didn’t approach Reynolds to write a Mysteries of London in imitation of Eugene Sue’s Mysteries of Paris. Another Frenchman, Paul Favel, had also published his novel Mysteries of London in 1843 which, judging only from a few excerpts, the book has never been translated, it is similar in concept to that of Reynolds. It is possible that Stiff and Vickers seized on the idea and recruited Reynolds to write the story to which occasion Reynolds supremely rose.

In any event The Steam Packet is written much in the Dickens style although as usual much superior to Dickens’ execution. The story has a tristesse about it as though Reynolds’ first period is ending with a feeling of failure. In fact, he seems to have made small impression at this point in his career.

Reynolds reverts to a Dickens motif of a club and its leader not dissimilar to the Pickwick Club. This is the Club of Luminaries led be a Mr. Pifpaf. Not exactly an endearing name, not quite as good as Pickwick. As in Pickwick Abroad the Club organizes an outing on a Steam Packet that probably was a novel concept at the time and in accordance with Reynolds interest in The Great Western. In this case the trip is down the Thames from the Pool, past Margate and the Cinq Ports to a tour of the French ports with its various adventures comically told. It’s not bad. It is a very good effort of Reynolds that probably deserved better acceptance except for that fatal association with another man’s work. Dickens is always on your mind.

Still, I see it as a Sentimental Journey as Reynolds more or less recaps his life to this point.   Consider this passage from page 75. He has just been criticizing Margate in Kent as a place where they roll up the sidewalks at five. Then this lovely passage:

Still—in despite of all that I have just written—I love Margate well. I am deeply attached to that part of Kent in which the Cinque Ports are situated; for I myself first drew breath of life in one of them. There are some men who regard love for one’s native place as a kind of fanaticism;–mind how you speak before them of the village where your eyes first held light—of your attachment to the very earth—to the atmosphere—to the village bell—or to the gently murmur of the passing stream;–all this is an impenetrable mystery to their cold egotist souls: in such hearts Self is the dominant power—such men love naught but themselves. They possess not a single generous association: listening to them you might believe that they exist without having ever submitted to the weakness of infancy—that they are secure from tomb.

Delicious is the privilege of enjoying the remembrance of a spot upon the earth where all our delightful dreams are assembled, our youthful loves and our parting hour! Delicious is it to picture a happy life in the little white cottage, sheltered with rosy tiles, as did Rousseau! There are you known by the very trees that grace the hamlet: that crowing cock that announced your birth—that wooden cross looked on while you received the name of Christian—that heavenly star rose through the ethereal arc to protect your life—the old church portals have creaked a kindly welcome to your repeated presence. There alone are you at home and beside your family;–there rests your father, there sleeps your mother;–there you were a helpless babe; and thither will you return in old age! Oh! spurn not that patriotism which is circumscribed to one’s native place,–it is patriotism still; for he who can love the humble village which saw his birth, possesses that sacred fervor which prompted Decius and Curtius how to die! Oh! even as my hand traces these words, I feel myself carried back to the days of infancy—and I rove with light and buoyant step once again amongst my native valleys. And so it is with the old man, too: though many years have glided by, and time has touched him with its silvery hand—though the roses of spring be faded, and the merry song of youthfulness be hushed; yet over these does memory linger, and draw from the remembrance a fragrance redolent of the gathered flower.

I think that sort of sentimentalism pervades Reynolds writing and gives it much of its interest. My life circumstances prevent me from sharing the view but Reynolds experience is as mine should have been and which I miss having been prevented to see.

When the steam packet lands at Dunkirk it is as though Reynolds is conducting a tour of his stay in France which he found equally as wonderful as his childhood even though he experienced some rough times. He seems fully conversant with Dunkirk and nearby St. Omer although the necessities of fiction prevent it from becoming a travelogue.

Reynolds was always quite observant of place and people as he shows in his excellent portrait of Calais. It sounds as if he had returned for a visit as he compares the present fallen state with the bustling past. At one time Calais was the only point of entrance into France from England while at the time he is writing other ports have assumed importance and Calais has become a shadow of itself with all institutions in decline. He himself claimed to have spoken with George ‘Beau’ Brummel when he first arrived in 1831. The Beau was the prime credit exile at the time. At that time all English visitors landed at Calais. There his old acquaintances saw the decaying Brummel and were dunned by him for loans that he could never repay. His was a sad story as he began his long decline dying a few years later a tattered remain of his former glory.

The Steam Packet was a much better book than I expected. It has multiple charms. Not least of the charms is that Reynolds is describing the French Channel ports as they appear to have actually existed at the moment while comparing them to the recent past. One is led to believe that Reynolds visited them just prior to writing. In a very interesting manner he interjects one of his long tales, as he calls them, short stories as a later period might, that ultimately leads to the career of the Seeress Mlle. Lenormand.

Mlle Lenormand was a real person and was alive at the time of writing dying in 1843. She was a very famous Seeress dating back to the time of the Revolution. She was probably a topic of conversation in Reynolds’ circles. I would hesitate to call a seeress such as Mlle. Lenormand fraudulent except that she and all Seers and Seeresses lay claim to have supernatural powers. The good have acute vision and highly developed acumen. They are able to look at what is happening, compare it with the past, and make fairly accurate prognostications of the future. Thus before the Revolution Mlle. Lenormand was able to accurately project the course of the Revolution gaining her reputation. Thus she was assumed to have supernatural powers so that she would have had to have worn the mantle to protect her reputation.

In order to succeed she had to have a system to collect information wide and deep then present her findings in a mysterious manner. She must have been at the height of her fame in 1840-41 when Reynolds wrote the Steam Packet.

By 1841 many societal things were happening that tended toward the encouragement of the supernatural. The Spiritual movement was beginning that would persist through the century finally becoming the Society for Psychic Research. Table turning and rappings were to become the rage. Mesmerism or Hypnotism as it became controversy was simmering along merrily in which Reynolds was heavily involved along with Franz Gall’s phrenology that was taken quite seriously at the time, the study of physiognomy is frequently referred to by Reynolds. And then there was the misunderstood phenomenon of electricity shrouded in the mystical, that Reynolds believed to be an actual fluid. And the telegraph, my Lord, messages could be sent hundreds of miles instantaneously. This was quite a mindblower at the time. By the twenty-first century you could transmit your own picture to anyplace in the world instantaneously. Perhaps then as now it wasn’t easy to determine what was real and what wasn’t. Today you address a black column and instead of saying abracadabra, you say Alexa and all kinds of improbable, seemingly impossible, things can occur. So, what isn’t possible? Perhaps then as now it wasn’t that easy to determine what was real and what wasn’t.

At any rate, in this atmosphere, Reynolds chose to expose the methods, or some of them, of Mlle. Lenormand. It is questionable how effective the Steam Packet was in discrediting her, nevertheless it’s the intent that counts. One wonders if she heard of it.

I think that one can couple The Steam Packet with Master Timothy’s Bookcase. They are both highly emulative of Dickens. Reynolds wouldn’t shake off the influence of Dickens until he began the Mysteries. Astonishingly Reynolds was only twenty-six years old when he wrote Steam Packet and it is an involved and intricate story with very good characterizations.

Reynolds first attempt, The Youthful Impostor was first written when he was only eighteen, that would have been in 1832, and published in 1835 when he was twenty-one. Reynolds rewrote it as The Parricide. As Reynolds describes that work in the advertisement:

This work has been completely remodeled, incorporating with it almost the whole of the episode involving the adventures of Sophia Maxwell and the Tale, in its new—reshaped—improved form, and Is now issued to the public under the more appropriate title of “The Parricide”

And that is dated 1847. So he has been reborn as a success and thus brings forward what he considered an important work under his own imprint. It appears that the four series of the Mysteries of London remained the property of Stiff and Vickers as I have found no evidence to this point that the series was ever republished by Dicks.

There is some mystery concerning the Court of London that putatively exists as four series also. The Oxford Society in England and the Burton Ethnographical Society of Boston USA published a twenty volume ‘Works’ of G. W. M. Reynolds that includes the first two series undoubtedly written by Reynolds but then continues on with a five volume work titled The Crimes of Lady Saxondale and a fourth five volume series titled The Fortunes of the Ashtons.

I have no idea where the third and fourth series came from but Reynolds could not have written them while they were available in 1900 when the Oxford and Burton sets were published. It is physically impossible that Reynolds could have written the two continuations while the style of writing is quite different from his.

Today, times and mores have changed, 1840-56 is 170 years or so in the past. Even the Oxford and Burton editions are well over a hundred years old, one hundred and seventy years of eventful history, two centuries almost, and millions of books. The mentality of the current age cannot elate to the changes the human mind has gone through so any thoughts of a revival, any such hopes, are futile. As Stendhal dedicated his great novel, The Charterhouse of Parma to the ‘the happy few’, so only the happy few will appreciate this fantastic author. I am happy to be one of them.

 

Next: Part VIII, Into The Mysteries.